Hammer v. Ashcroft, PLN Amicus Brief, Cert Petitition to US Supreme Court, 2010
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No. 09-504 IN THE Supreme Court of the United States _________________________ DAVID PAUL HAMMER, PETITIONER, v. JOHN D. ASHCROFT, ET AL. _________________________ ON PETITION FOR WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SEVENTH CIRCUIT _________________________ BRIEF AMICI CURIAE OF THE REPORTERS COMMITTEE FOR FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AND TWENTY-THREE NEWS MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS IN SUPPORT OF PETITIONER _________________________ Lucy A. Dalglish Counsel of Record Gregg P. Leslie John Rory Eastburg The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press 1101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1100 Arlington, Va. 22209 (703) 807-2100 (Additional counsel for amici listed in Appendix B.) i TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Authorities .................................................... ii Statement of Interest.................................................. 1 Summary of Argument ............................................... 3 Argument .................................................................... 5 I. The decision below imperils valuable communication between inmates and the press .. 5 A. Inmate interviews expose abuse and spur prison reform .................................................... 6 B. Inmate interviews provide unique insight into prison conditions .......................... 8 C. Inmate interviews help citizens monitor how their tax dollars are spent...................... 10 II. The court below erred in approving a policy that allows no method of uncensored communication with the press ............................ 12 A. Previous limits on inmate speech allowed some means of uncensored communication .. 12 B. The Media Policy, as enforced, allows no unfettered communication with the press .... 14 III. Public oversight of prisons will suffer if this decision, allowing the content-based suppression of speech, stands .......................... 17 A. The record shows the rules were an attempt to keep the viewpoints of death row inmates from the public ................................. 19 B. The government failed to justify its “jail celebrity” rationale in this context ........ 22 Conclusion ................................................................. 24 ii TABLE OF AUTHORITIES Abu-Jamal v. Price, 154 F.3d 128 (3rd Cir. 1998)............................. 19 Beard v. Banks, 548 U.S. 521 (2006).......................... 4 Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520 (1979) ......................... 17 Houchins v. KQED, 438 U.S. 1 (1978) ................. 5, 22 Johnson v. Avery, 393 U.S. 483 (1969)..................... 13 Johnson v. Stephan, 6 F.3d 691 (10th Cir. 1993)............................... 14 Kimberlin v. Quinlan, 199 F.3d 496 (D.C. Cir. 1999)..................... 18, 19 Nolan v. Fitzpatrick, 451 F.2d 545 (1st Cir. 1971) ............................. 13 Pell v. Procunier, 417 U.S. 817 (1974) ............... passim Prison Legal News v. Cook, 238 F.3d 1145 (9th Cir. 2001)........................... 16 Procunier v. Martinez, 416 U.S. 396 (1974) ....... 13, 22 Procunier v. Navarette, 434 U.S. 555 (1978).............. 6 Quinn v. Nix, 983 F.2d 115 (8th Cir. 1993)............................. 18 Salahuddin v. Goord, 467 F.3d 263 (2nd Cir. 2006) ............................ 18 Saxbe v. Washington Post Co., 417 U.S. 843 (1974)..................................... passim Sheppard v. Maxwell, 384 U.S. 333 (1966) .............. 13 Shaw v. Murphy, 532 U.S. 223 (2001) ..................... 17 iii Swift v. Lewis, 901 F.2d 730 (9th Cir. 1990) ........... 18 Thornburgh v. Abbott, 490 U.S. 401 (1989) ............. 13 Turner v. Safley, 482 U.S. 78 (1987) .................. passim Walker v. Sumner, 917 F.2d 382 (9th Cir. 1990)............................. 18 STATUTES AND REGULATIONS 28 C.F.R. § 540.63 ..................................................... 20 Institution Supplement THA-1480.05A............. passim U.S. Supreme Court Rule 10(a)................................ 19 U.S. Supreme Court Rule 37 ...................................... 1 OTHER Noah Bierman and John Pacenti, State drops effort to try guards for inmate’s death, THE PALM BEACH POST, May 11, 2002, at 1A ............................................ 8 Barbara Brotman, Hard Time: Killer Says Prison Caused the Mental Illness That’s Now Keeping Him There, CHICAGO TRIBUNE, Dec. 1, 1991, at 1................................................. 9 Amy Goldstein, A Sept. 11 Detainee’s Long Path to Release; After Final Glitch, Ivory Coast Native is Home, THE WASHINGTON POST, Nov. 12, 2002, at A3 ............................... 10 Amy Goldstein, ‘I Want to Go Home’; Detainee Tony Oulai Awaits End of 4-Month Legal Limbo, THE WASHINGTON POST, Jan. 26, 2002, at A1................................ 10 iv Amy Goldstein and Dana Priest, Beset by Medical Problems as She Fights Deportation, a U.S. Resident Struggles to Get the Treatment She Needs, THE WASHINGTON POST, May 12, 2008, at A1 ......... 10 Beth Healy, Breakdown: The Prison Suicide Crisis; A system strains, and inmates die, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Dec. 9, 2007, at A1............ 9 Beth Kassab, 5 Guards Go Free in Killing: Charges will be dropped in the fatal beating death of death-row inmate Frank Valdes, ORLANDO SENTINEL, May 11, 2002, at A1.......... 8 Susan Kuklin, NO CHOIRBOY: MURDER, VIOLENCE, AND TEENAGERS ON DEATH ROW (2008) .............. 9 Meg Laughlin, Inmate Letter Warned of Beatings, THE MIAMI HERALD, July 27, 1999, at A1 .......... 8 One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections, THE PEW CENTER ON THE STATES, March 2, 2009, available at www.pewcenteronthestates.org ....................... 11 Alan Prendergast, Head Games, DENVER WESTWORD NEWS, September 21, 2006, available at www.westword.com/2006-0921/news/head-games ......................................... 10 Michael Rezendes and Thomas Farragher, Patrick aide spurns prison policy change; Rejects call to ban solitary confinement for the mentally ill, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Dec. 12, 2007, at B1 ............................................ 9 Gloria Romero, Access Needed to Report on Prison Conditions, THE DAILY NEWS OF LOS ANGELES, April 29, 2004, at N17...................... 11 v Rich Rucker, Prisons work to cut inmate abuse, FLORIDA TIMES-UNION, Nov. 17, 2001, at B1..... 8 Jonathan Saltzman and Thomas Farragher, Breakdown: The Prison Suicide Crisis; Guards, inmates a volatile dynamic, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Dec. 11, 2007, at A1.......... 9 Charles M. Sennott, AIDS adds a fatal factor to prison assault: Rape Behind Bars, THE BOSTON GLOBE, May 2, 1994, at B1............ 8 Charles M. Sennott, Prison system enacts reforms to stop inmate rape, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Nov. 9, 1994, B1 ....................... 8 Charles M. Sennott, Prison’s hidden horror: Rape Behind Bars, THE BOSTON GLOBE, May 1, 1994, at B1 .............................................. 8 Loretta Tofani, Improved Conditions Reduce Assaults in P.G. Jail, THE WASHINGTON POST, Dec. 31, 1982, at B1.................................. 7 Loretta Tofani, Terror Behind Bars: Most Victims of the Sexual Attacks are Legally Innocent, THE WASHINGTON POST, Sept. 26, 1982, at A1 .......................................................... 7 Loretta Tofani and Tom Vesey, Seven Are Indicted in Sexual Assaults at Prince George’s Jail, THE WASHINGTON POST, Jan. 14, 1983, at A1 ............................................ 7 1 STATEMENT OF INTEREST1 Amici curiae, described in Appendix A, are twenty-four of the nation’s leading news media organizations — The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, Advance Publications, Inc., The American Society of News Editors, The Association of American Publishers, Inc., The Citizen Media Law Project, Community Newspaper Holdings, Inc., Cox Media Group, Inc., The E.W. Scripps Company, The First Amendment Coalition, The Foundation for National Progress, Gannett Co., Inc., The Hoosier State Press Association, The Hoosier State Press Association Foundation, The Human Rights Defense Center, MediaNews Group, National Press Photographers Association, The New York Times Company, Newspaper Association of America, The Newspaper Guild – CWA, The Radio-Television Digital News Association, The Society of Professional Journalists, Stephens Media LLC, Tribune Company, and The Washington Post. This case concerns an issue critical to the press and the public in general: whether the federal government may prohibit death row inmates from talking to the press about the abuse, mistreatment, and Pursuant to Sup. Ct. R. 37, counsel for the amici curiae declare that they authored this brief in total with no assistance from the parties; that no individuals or organizations other than the amici made a monetary contribution to the preparation and submission of this brief; that counsel for all parties were given timely notice of the intent to file this brief; and that written consent of all parties to the filing of the brief amici curiae has been filed with the Clerk. 1 2 actions of other inmates; whether it may prohibit all in-person interviews with death row inmates; and whether these draconian restrictions may be valid even where the officials responsible for the rules admitted they were motivated by a desire to keep disfavored viewpoints from reaching the public. 3 SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT David Hammer, like other men on the federal government’s death row, was prohibited from speaking in person with the press. He also was prohibited from discussing any other inmate whether in person, by phone, or by letter. Amici urge the Court to accept this case and make clear that the Constitution does not allow prison rules that provide inmates no means of uncensored communication with the press — especially rules enacted with the express purpose of suppressing distasteful viewpoints. Prohibitions on inmate interviews imperil vital communication. Through interviews with inmates, journalists regularly expose prison rape and other abuse, document poor conditions and unhealthy environments in the nation’s prisons and jails, allow the public to monitor how its tax dollars are spent within prisons, and spur reforms across the country. See infra, Section I. Recognizing the importance of the First Amendment even in the prison context, this Court in Turner v. Safley ruled that prisoner speech can be curtailed only when a regulation “is reasonably related to legitimate penological interests.” 482 U.S. 78, 89 (1987). Among other factors, the test considers whether there is “a valid, rational connection between the prison regulation and the legitimate governmental interest put forward to justify it,” and whether “alternative means of exercising” First Amendment rights “remain open to prison inmates.” Id. at 89-91. This Court repeatedly has made clear that the Turner factors are “the basic substantive legal standards” for judging regulations like the ones 4 at issue here. Beard v. Banks, 548 U.S. 521, 528-29 (2006). But the en banc majority below did not even purport to apply the Turner test, relying instead on earlier cases.2 As a result, the court approved restrictions that prevented death row inmates from having any uncensored contact with the news media. The Special Confinement Unit (SCU) Media Policy, as enforced, prohibited Hammer from speaking by any means about the treatment, conditions, and activities of other prisoners. Hammer produced evidence that this was the case, and requested the opportunity to develop more via discovery. But the case was dismissed before he could do so. See infra, Section II. Moreover, the en banc court ratified rules that are unrelated to penological interests. Indeed, there was not even a pretext of penological concern until after the rules were implemented. The Attorney General who ordered the rules announced, at a press conference, that his interest was in preventing the public from hearing the distasteful viewpoints of federal death row prisoners. See infra, Section III. For example, the en banc opinion begins by noting that reporters “have no constitutional right of access to prisons or their inmates beyond that afforded to the general public.” App. 1a (quoting Pell v. Procunier, 417 U.S. 817, 834 (1974)). This misses the point. Pell dealt with the rights of reporters to gain access to prisons. This case, like Turner, deals with the related but analytically distinct right of an inmate to speak with the press. 2 5 Amici do not dispute that incarceration necessitates some limits on inmate rights and privileges. At the same time, however, “[p]rison walls do not form a barrier separating prison inmates from the protections of the Constitution.” Turner, 482 U.S. at 84. This is especially important in the death row context, because journalists generally cannot learn about prison conditions from former death row inmates. The Court should accept this case and make clear that restrictions on prisoner speech must leave open some means of uncensored communication with the news media, and they must be motivated by penological, rather than merely political, interests. ARGUMENT I. The decision below imperils valuable communication between inmates and the press. Inmate interviews are valuable for exposing abuse, documenting poor conditions and waste in prisons, and promoting social reform and fiscal responsibility. In recent decades, prisoner interviews and correspondence have allowed the press to report about prison rape, prison violence, and the treatment of vulnerable inmates.3 Amici do not “confuse what is ‘good,’ ‘desirable,’ or ‘expedient’ with what is constitutionally commanded by the First Amendment.” See Houchins v. KQED, 438 U.S. 1, 13 (1978). But these examples show that the decision below is especially important to correct because its effects stretch far beyond Hammer and similarly-situated inmates, to affect the public’s understanding of the penal system. 3 6 All of this is possible because reporters and authors were able to interview inmates without government censorship. But the decision below permitted blanket restrictions on the speech of death row inmates. And the court’s reasoning is so broad that it would seem to give prison officials the discretion to curtail any inmate’s speech whenever a court can “imagine” a legitimate reason for the restrictions (See App. 5a).4 A. Inmate interviews expose abuse and spur prison reform. Communications between prisoners and the press, including discussions about other inmates, have long played a valuable role in exposing inhumane conditions and abuse in the country’s prisons and jails. For example, The Washington Post published a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative series on inmate rape in 1982. The series told a litany of stories about men detained at a Maryland jail — many later acquitted — whose reports of rape were ignored by corrections officials. The piece included the story of The First Amendment rights of pretrial detainees and those of post-conviction prisoners are analytically distinct. See, e.g., Procunier v. Navarette, 434 U.S. 555, 564 & n.11 (1978). Amici discuss examples involving both because the public interest in speaking with both detainees and prisoners, in both the state and federal systems, is similar. Indeed, there is a stronger interest in interviewing death row inmates, who presumably will never return to society, than those held at facilities former inmates of which can be interviewed after they leave. 4 7 Ronald Fridge, an 18-year-old waiter who was briefly jailed after a verbal dispute with his landlady over rent. Fridge told reporters that another inmate raped and assaulted him while he was awaiting trial. He said he complained to corrections officials after the first rape but was left in a cell with the aggressor for two days, during which time he was raped “again and again.” Another inmate interviewed by a reporter said he helped the alleged aggressor rape Fridge.5 The story provided a unique window into a dysfunctional jail, and it had two important effects: three months after the story ran, the paper reported that conditions had improved at the detention facility due to new safety measures enacted in response to the exposé.6 And the next month, a grand jury indicted seven men implicated in sexual assaults uncovered in the inmate interviews.7 Nor is this example unique. In 1994, the Massachusetts Department of Corrections launched an effort to curb prison rape after a Boston Globe series focused on inmates who told reporters they were sexually assaulted — and, in at least one case, in Loretta Tofani, Terror Behind Bars: Most Victims of the Sexual Attacks are Legally Innocent, THE WASHINGTON POST, Sept. 26, 1982, at A1. 5 Loretta Tofani, Improved Conditions Reduce Assaults in P.G. Jail, THE WASHINGTON POST, Dec. 31, 1982, at B1. 6 Loretta Tofani and Tom Vesey, Seven Are Indicted in Sexual Assaults at Prince George’s Jail, THE WASHINGTON POST, Jan. 14, 1983, at A1. 7 8 fected with HIV — behind bars.8 Five months later, the state prosecuted its first-ever prison rape case.9 In another case, a Florida death-row inmate alerted a newspaper about beatings that later resulted in an inmate’s death, imploring that someone “get the Feds in here … to stop this before someone gets killed.”10 B. Inmate interviews provide unique insight into prison conditions. Aside from coverage of rape and other violence against inmates, media interviews have exposed unhealthy conditions and prisons’ failures to provide medical assistance to inmates. For example, a 2007 Boston Globe series on prison conditions for the mentally ill incarcerated in Massachusetts examined the soaring number of inmate suicides in the state dur Charles M. Sennott, Prison system enacts reforms to stop inmate rape, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Nov. 9, 1994, at B1; see Charles M. Sennott, Prison’s hidden horror: Rape Behind Bars, THE BOSTON GLOBE, May 1, 1994, at B1, Charles M. Sennott, AIDS adds a fatal factor to prison assault: Rape Behind Bars, THE BOSTON GLOBE, May 2, 1994, at B1. 8 Charles M. Sennott, Prison system enacts reforms to stop inmate rape, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Nov. 9, 1994, at B1. 9 Meg Laughlin, Inmate Letter Warned of Beatings, THE MIAMI HERALD, July 27, 1999, at A1; see also Beth Kassab, 5 Guards Go Free in Killing: Charges will be dropped in the fatal beating death of death-row inmate Frank Valdes, ORLANDO SENTINEL, May 11, 2002, at A1; Noah Bierman and John Pacenti, State drops effort to try guards for inmate’s death, THE PALM BEACH POST, May 11, 2002, at 1A; Rich Rucker, Prisons work to cut inmate abuse, FLORIDA TIMES-UNION, Nov. 17, 2001, at B1. 10 9 ing a two-year period.11 A special investigative team interviewed a 28-year-old mentally-ill inmate who twice had attempted suicide and described the horrors of solitary confinement that had driven him to the brink and other inmates over the edge.12 In the wake of the series, state lawmakers called for swift action to change the state’s treatment of the mentally ill behind bars.13 Similarly, the Chicago Tribune profiled a former death row inmate who developed paranoid schizophrenia while on death row.14 A 2008 book for young adult readers featured interviews with death row inmates sentenced for crimes they committed when they, too, were teenagers.15 And the Denver Westword News’s correspondence with inmate Troy Anderson prompted a news report that the inmate had been seeking evaluations for medications for two Beth Healy, Breakdown: The Prison Suicide Crisis; A system strains, and inmates die, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Dec. 9, 2007, at A1. 11 Jonathan Saltzman and Thomas Farragher, Breakdown: The Prison Suicide Crisis; Guards, inmates a volatile dynamic, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Dec. 11, 2007, at A1. 12 Michael Rezendes and Thomas Farragher, Patrick aide spurns prison policy change; Rejects call to ban solitary confinement for the mentally ill, THE BOSTON GLOBE, Dec. 12, 2007, at B1. 13 Barbara Brotman, Hard Time: Killer Says Prison Caused the Mental Illness That’s Now Keeping Him There, CHICAGO TRIBUNE, Dec. 1, 1991, at 1. 14 Susan Kuklin, NO CHOIRBOY: MURDER, VIOLENCE, AND TEENAGERS ON DEATH ROW (2008). 15 10 years and was told he would not be released from solitary confinement without them. Days after the alternative weekly newspaper inquired about the delay, Anderson saw a psychiatrist.16 Journalists’ communications with immigrants detained in federal facilities also have helped shed light on the post-Sept. 11, 2001 operation of immigration detention centers. This included, for example, stories about an Ivory Coast pilot held as a material witness in a hijacking probe for four months before being interviewed,17 and a U.S. resident fighting deportation who reported being unable to get proper care for tumors and other medical problems in an Arizona prison.18 C. Inmate interviews help citizens monitor how their tax dollars are spent. Inmate health and safety aside, prisons and jails represent a massive public investment. Interviews Alan Prendergast, Head Games, DENVER WESTWORD NEWS, September 21, 2006, available at www.westword.com/2006-0921/news/head-games. 16 See Amy Goldstein, ‘I Want to Go Home’; Detainee Tony Oulai Awaits End of 4-Month Legal Limbo, THE WASHINGTON POST, Jan. 26, 2002, at A1; Amy Goldstein, A Sept. 11 Detainee’s Long Path to Release; After Final Glitch, Ivory Coast Native is Home, THE WASHINGTON POST, Nov. 12, 2002, at A3. 17 See Amy Goldstein and Dana Priest, In Custody, In Pain; Beset by Medical Problems as She Fights Deportation, a U.S. Resident Struggles to Get the Treatment She Needs, THE WASHINGTON POST, May 12, 2008, at A1. 18 11 with inmates provide one way for the public to monitor how its money is being spent. Today, only Medicaid costs are growing faster than criminal corrections spending, which outpaces state budget growth in education, transportation, and public assistance.19 Correctional facilities cost states $47 billion in 2008, according to a Pew Center of the States Report that revealed that one in thirtyone adults, or 7.3 million Americans, are either in prison, on parole, or on probation. The Pew report found that fifteen states now spend more than $1 billion of their annual budgets on their correctional systems. Michigan, for example, dedicates 22% of its general fund spending to its correctional systems. Press interviews with inmates have long helped the public keep an eye on these essential, but very expensive, public institutions. In North Carolina, for example, journalists who interviewed an inmate discovered that a prison doctor who was earning $110,000 for full-time employment actually spent less than two hours a day in the facility. After the report, a class action suit against the doctor emerged, the doctor resigned, and officials stepped up plans to expand medical facilities for prisoners.20 One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections, THE PEW CENTER ON THE STATES, March 2, 2009, available at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/report_detail.aspx?id=493 82. 19 Gloria Romero, Access Needed to Report on Prison Conditions, THE DAILY NEWS OF LOS ANGELES, April 29, 2004, at N17. 20 12 II. The court below erred in approving a policy that allows no method of uncensored communication with the press. Despite the value of prisoner interviews, the SCU Media Policy limits “all avenues of communication” between prisoners and the press, providing what Judge Wood called “an all-too-effective way to prevent the public from ever learning about” prisoner abuse or unhealthy conditions. (App. 28a). The Policy, by forbidding one inmate from discussing another inmate under any circumstances and regardless of the medium, eviscerates prisoners’ First Amendment rights and undermines the public’s access to a unique and important source of information about prisons. The First Amendment demands more. This Court repeatedly has suggested that abridgements of inmates’ First Amendment rights are tolerated if, and only if, alternative means of communication with the press and other members of the public are available. The lack of any free channel of communication between journalists and inmates is contrary to established jurisprudence regarding prisoners’ rights and this Court’s recognition that the conditions in U.S. prisons are a matter that is both newsworthy and of great public importance. See Pell v. Procunier, 417 U.S. 817, 830 n.7 (1974). A. Previous limits on inmate speech allowed some means of uncensored communication. Prisoners retain constitutional rights even while incarcerated, including free speech rights and the 13 First Amendment right to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Turner, 482 U.S. at 84 (citing Johnson v. Avery, 393 U.S. 483 (1969)). These rights may be regulated as a consequence of incarceration, but only if “there are alternative means of exercising the right that remain open to prison inmates.” Turner, 482 U.S. at 90. The Court explained in Procunier v. Martinez that the interest of “prisoners and their correspondents in uncensored communication … grounded as it is in the First Amendment, is ... protected from arbitrary governmental invasion.” 416 U.S. 396, 417-18 (1974), overruled in part by Thornburgh v. Abbott, 490 U.S. 401 (1989) (citations omitted). In addition to the speech interests at stake, contact with the press is one essential method of petitioning the government. Indeed, media coverage not only describes the criminal legal process, but also “guards against the miscarriage of justice by subjecting the police, prosecutors, and judicial processes to extensive public scrutiny and criticism.” Sheppard v. Maxwell, 384 U.S. 333, 350 (1966); see also Nolan v. Fitzpatrick, 451 F.2d 545, 547 (1st Cir. 1971) (recognizing a constitutional “right to send letters to the press concerning prison matters” and adding that “[t]he argument that the prisoner has the right to communicate his grievances to the press and, through the press, to the public is thus buttressed by the invisibility of prisons to the press and the public: the prisoners’ right to speak is enhanced by the right of the public to hear”). When this Court has approved restrictions on prisoner speech, it has done so in part because the restrictions were narrow enough to allow alternative, unfettered means of expression. Thus, in Saxbe, the 14 Court allowed a policy barring face-to-face communication in part because the policy allowed unlimited, uncensored outgoing correspondence with journalists, and prison authorities were required to “give all possible assistance” to press representatives “in providing background and a specific report” concerning any inmate complaints. Saxbe v. Washington Post Co., 417 U.S. 847-48 (1974). In Pell, the Court noted that prison officials should be accorded deference with regard to regulating “the entry of people into the prisons for face-to-face communication with inmates.” Pell, 417 U.S. at 826. But this was only the case “[s]o long as reasonable and effective means of communication remain open and no discrimination in terms of content is involved” in the policy. Id. Thus, the Pell Court approved restrictions on inperson interviews in part because “it is clear that the medium of written correspondence affords inmates an open and substantially unimpeded channel for communication with persons outside the prison, including representatives of the news media.” Id. at 824. Both cases thus held that “[d]enying media access to conduct face-to-face interviews with inmates is constitutional as long as alternative means for communicating with the media are available.” Johnson v. Stephan, 6 F.3d 691, 692 (10th Cir. 1993) (emphasis added). B. The Media Policy, as enforced, allows death row prisoners no unfettered communication with the press. The en banc majority recognized this Court’s admonition that regulations on prisoner speech should include some manner of unfettered communication with the press. “A system of rules that permitted 15 prison administrators to conceal beatings or starvation of prisoners, violations of statutes and regulations, and other misconduct would be intolerable,” it conceded. (App. 13a). “The Court said as much in Pell and [Saxbe]. It was important to both decisions that all prisoners could correspond freely with reporters, even though face-to-face interviews were impossible.” (Id.). The court below nevertheless approved the SCU Media Policy’s interview restriction, in part because it assumed that written correspondence provided an inmate with a reasonable alternative means of communication. “As far as we can tell,” the en banc majority found, the prohibition on speaking about other inmates “applies to interviews (in person or by telephone) but not to correspondence.” (App. 13a). The majority assumed that “an inmate’s letters to reporters are not subject to inspection or censorship” and concluded that if “another inmate is beaten and unable to talk, Hammer remains free to send a letter informing a reporter about that event. Pell and [Saxbe] held that free correspondence supplies the needed channel of communication.” (App. 2a, 14a15a). But the record reflects a different reality, Judge Rovner noted, in which “an inmate could be disciplined for informing the media — whether on the phone or by letter — that another inmate is being abused by a guard.” (App. 20a). Contrary to the majority’s assumptions, the government conceded that “death-row inmates are not allowed — through any method of communication — to discuss other inmates with members of the media.” (App. 19a-20a). It also conceded that “all mail sent by inmates at the Spe 16 cial Confinement Unit must be given to prison officials unsealed for inspection before it is mailed.” (App. 20a). And “[w]hen asked what would be the consequence to an inmate who sends a letter discussing another inmate, counsel for the government had no answer.” (Id.). Indeed, the record reveals that Warden Harley Lappin told Hammer that: “You are hereby ordered not to provide any information concerning other inmates during news media interviews, social calls, or correspondence with the media.” (App. 25a). At one point, prison officials even “disciplined Hammer for providing information about a fellow death row inmate to a reporter.” (App. 33a). Hammer was not permitted discovery in order to fully develop the record — rather than respond to his discovery requests, the government sought, and received, summary judgment in its favor. (App. 36a); cf. Prison Legal News v. Cook, 238 F.3d 1145, 1150 (9th Cir. 2001) (“When the inmate presents sufficient … evidence that refutes a common-sense connection between a legitimate objective and a prison regulation, … the state must present enough counter-evidence to show that the connection is not so remote as to render the policy arbitrary or irrational”) (internal citations omitted). On the anemic and fuzzy record that did exist, Judge Wood noted, the court was left to guess “whether there is any satisfactory alternative for inmates at the Special Confinement Unit to give the media any information that involves other inmates.” (App. 20a). The majority simply assumed that, “[a]s far as we can tell,” inmates were able to send uncensored mail to journalists. (App. 13a). And this is no small assumption. “Without the linchpin provided by its assumption that correspon 17 dence is free,” Judge Wood argued, “the majority’s rationale collapses.” (App. 20a). At the very least, Hammer deserves the opportunity to prove his claim that the Policy, as enforced, left him with no means of unfettered communication with the media. III. Public oversight of prisons will suffer if this decision, allowing the content-based suppression of speech, stands. The primary test of whether a regulation on inmate speech is permissible is whether there is a “valid, rational connection between the prison regulation and the legitimate governmental interest put forward to justify it.” Turner, 482 U.S. at 89 (internal quotation omitted). To meet this test, “the governmental objective must be a legitimate and neutral one. We have found it important to inquire whether prison regulations restricting inmates’ First Amendment rights operated in a neutral fashion, without regard to the content of the expression.” Id. at 89-90 (citing Pell, 417 U.S. at 828; Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520, 551 (1979)). Moreover, “a regulation cannot be sustained where the logical connection between the regulation and the asserted goal is so remote as to render the policy arbitrary or irrational.” Turner, 482 U.S. at 89-90. These considerations are “[f]irst and foremost” among the Turner factors — if “the connection between the regulation and the asserted goal is ‘arbitrary or irrational,’ then the regulation fails, irrespective of whether the other factors tilt in its favor.” Shaw v. Murphy, 532 U.S. 223, 229-30 (2001). 18 Other circuits have interpreted Turner as requiring that “prison officials actually had, not just could have had, a legitimate reason for burdening protected activity.” Salahuddin v. Goord, 467 F.3d 263, 277 (2nd Cir. 2006) (emphasis added); see also Quinn v. Nix, 983 F.2d 115, 118 (8th Cir. 1993) (“Prison officials are not entitled to the deference described in Turner … if their actions are not actually motivated by legitimate penological interests at the time they act.”) (emphasis added). Because “deference does not mean abdication,” Turner requires authorities to “first identify the specific penological interests involved and then demonstrate both that those specific interests are the actual bases for their policies and that the policies are reasonably related to the furtherance of the identified interests. An evidentiary showing is required as to each point.” Walker v. Sumner, 917 F.2d 382, 385-87 (9th Cir. 1990); see also Swift v. Lewis, 901 F.2d 730, 731 (9th Cir. 1990), superseded by statute on other grounds (reversing summary judgment grant where officials failed to show “that the interests they have asserted are the actual bases for their grooming policy”); Kimberlin v. Quinlan, 199 F.3d 496, 502 (D.C. Cir. 1999) (“even if appellants provide an objectively valid reason for their actions in this case, the District Court must still inquire into whether there is a disputed issue of fact as to whether appellants were actually motivated by an illegitimate purpose”). Thus, Turner upheld a restriction on correspondence because there was testimony that the restriction “was promulgated primarily for security reasons” and “[p]rison officials testified that mail between institutions can be used to communicate escape plans and to arrange assaults and other violent 19 acts.” Turner, 482 U.S. at 91. Conversely, the Third Circuit ordered a district court to enjoin a prison policy because prison authorities investigated an inmate “under public pressure to do so, and because of the content of [his] writing.” Abu-Jamal v. Price, 154 F.3d 128, 134 (3rd Cir. 1998); see also Kimberlin, 199 F.3d at 503 (citing lower court finding that “no reasonable prison official could believe that interfering with an inmate’s access to the press because of the content of the inmate’s speech could be lawful”). The court below rejected this reading of Turner, finding it irrelevant whether the government’s asserted interest was pretextual and rejecting the idea that “one bad motive would spoil a rule that is adequately supported by good reasons.” (App. 10a). “The Supreme Court did not search for ‘pretext’ in Turner; it asked instead whether a rule is rationally related to a legitimate goal. That’s an objective inquiry,” the court ruled. (App. 10a). This reading eviscerates Turner. It also creates a split with the Second, Third, Eighth Ninth, and District of Columbia circuits with regard to an important federal question. See Sup. Ct. R. 10(a). A. The record shows the rules were an attempt to keep the viewpoints of death row inmates from the public. There is no evidence in the record, beyond posthoc assertions, suggesting that the SCU Media Policy was motivated by any penological interest. To the contrary — the record shows that the policy was motivated by political concerns over suppressing particular viewpoints rather than a concern for safety. 20 Federal regulations have long allowed inmates to participate in face-to-face press interviews, “not subject to auditory supervision,” unless the warden determines that a specific interview would “endanger the health or safety of the interviewer, or would probably cause serious unrest or disturb the good order of the institution,” or other specific criteria are met. 28 C.F.R. § 540.63. The SCU Media Policy creates an exception for death row inmates, flatly prohibiting in-person interviews and barring any discussion of other inmates.21 The Policy was created just after Timothy McVeigh appeared on the television news program 60 Minutes. North Dakota Senator Byron L. Dorgan blasted prison officials for allowing McVeigh to speak with a television news crew. “The American people have a right to expect that the incarceration of a convicted killer will not only remove him physically from society,” he said, “but will also prevent him from further intrusion in our lives through television interviews and from using those forums to advance his agenda of violence.” (App. 8a). Dorgan’s letter demanded that the Bureau of Prisons revise its regulations and curtail prisoner access to the media so as not to further “dishonor” crime victims. (7th Cir. JA at 175). Of course, the letter reveals Dorgan’s personal distaste for the content of what an inmate said, As Hammer notes, singling out male death row inmates also creates equal protection concerns. See Cert. Pet. 13 (“no other reported decision has ever upheld the constitutionality of a permanent restriction on the First Amendment rights of a subclass of prisoners, particularly a subclass identified solely based on gender and sentence”) (emphasis omitted). 21 21 rather than any concern that the prisoners and employees of the SCU were being put at risk by McVeigh’s comments. Dorgan’s viewpoint-based motivation was echoed by Attorney General John Ashcroft during a press conference announcing the new SCU media policy in April 2001. Standing with Bureau of Prisons Director Kathleen Hawk Sawyer, Ashcroft invoked his distaste for McVeigh’s appearance on 60 Minutes to justify the new ban. “As an American who cares about our culture, I want to restrict a mass murderer’s access to the public podium,” he said. (App. 90a). “On an issue of particular importance to me as attorney general of the United States, I do not want anyone to be able to purchase access to the podium of America with the blood of 168 innocent victims.” (Id.). For these reasons, Ashcroft said, he was ordering that “[m]edia access to special confinement unit inmates will be limited to each inmate’s ordinary allotment of telephone time.” (Id.) Warden Harley Lappin formalized the ban with Institution Supplement THA-1480.05A just three days after the Attorney General’s statement. (App. 9a). Ashcroft’s statement made clear that his preferences about viewpoints suitable for American culture motivated the interview ban. This frank admission belies any notion that security threats, either real or potential, were at the heart of the ban. Amici recognize the discretion this Court has granted to prison administrators to curtail in-person interviews with inmates when legitimate interests are at stake and alternatives for communication are present. See Pell, 417 U.S. at 822; Saxbe, 417 U.S. at 22 847. Amici respectfully suggest that Pell and Saxbe underestimated the importance of in-person prisoner interviews.22 But there is no need to revisit Pell and Saxbe in order to clarify that, where such restrictions are put in place, they must legitimately be motivated by the security concerns present in those cases. The Constitution does not permit the government to cloak content-based restrictions on prisoner speech in posthoc claims of security concerns. Nor does it permit regulations, like these, aimed at suppressing objectionable points of view. See, e.g., Martinez, 416 U.S. at 415 (invalidating regulations that “authorized, inter alia, censorship of statements that ‘unduly complain’ or ‘magnify grievances,’ expression of ‘inflammatory political, racial, religious or other views,’ and matter deemed ‘defamatory’ or ‘otherwise inappropriate’”). B. The government failed to justify its “jail celebrity” rationale in this context. The court below found that the SCU Media Policy is justified by security concerns unique to death row inmates. (App. 57a). But these post-hoc assertions are not sufficient even under the deferential scrutiny articulated in Turner. There is no wholly adequate alternative to the in-person interview. See, e.g., Saxbe, 417 U.S. at 854 (Powell, J., dissenting) (citing expert testimony and adding that “[o]nly in face-to-face discussion can a reporter put a question to an inmate and respond to his answer with an immediate follow-up question”). This is particularly true for broadcasters, who rely on images and recordings to tell their stories. See Houchins v. KQED, 438 U.S. 1, 17 (1978) (Stewart, J., concurring in the judgment). 22 23 The court defended singling out death row prisoners based on a concern they will become “jail celebrities” if they are allowed face-to-face interviews with the press. It is common for prison officials to make similar claims in support of restrictions upon media access to inmates. See, e.g., Pell, 417 at 831-832. The Saxbe Court thus found that “inmates who are conspicuously publicized because of their repeated contacts with the press tend to become the source of substantial disciplinary problems that can engulf a large portion of the population at a prison.” 417 U.S. at 848-849. The concern under this theory is that media interviews with this type of inmate “increase their status and influence and thus enhance their ability to persuade other prisoners to engage in disruptive behavior.” Id. at 866 (Powell, J., dissenting). The concerns presented in Pell and Saxbe may be reasonable in their specific factual settings, but the government produced no evidence that they apply with any special force to death row prisoners. As Judge Rovner noted, “[i]t is unclear why speaking inperson with a journalist would give an unknown death-row inmate more influence over other prisoners than would, for example, allowing Martha Stewart or George Ryan to give face-to-face interviews during their incarceration, which they would have been or are free to do under the Bureau’s policies.” (App. 22a). If anything, the day-to-day conditions of life on death row make it far less likely that an inmate could wreak havoc with his or her perceived status as a celebrity. The isolated lives of Hammer and his fellow SCU inmates hardly present an opportunity for Hammer to use any prestige or notoriety he may re 24 ceive from an in-person media interview to encourage disruptive behavior in others. Life in the SCU is tightly regulated. There are three classifications for inmates, only one of which allows any contact between inmates. (7th Cir. JA at 200). Even that allowed contact is highly regulated — only four inmates may be placed in the same recreation enclosure. (Id. at 206). If a prisoner needs to leave the SCU for any reason, he must be “restrained in front with full restraints, handcuffs, black box, martin chain and leg irons.” (Id. at 200). During such an outing, the prisoner must be escorted by no fewer than three guards. (Id.) And, regardless of their classification, inmates are not allowed contact social visits. (Id. at 208). At the very least, Hammer deserves the opportunity to take discovery on the sincerity and reasonableness of the asserted penological interest. But the government refused to answer his pro se discovery requests, and the court below nevertheless affirmed the defendants’ motion for summary judgment and dismissed Hammer’s claims. (App. 36a). CONCLUSION The government has imposed a broad ban on prisoner interviews, motivated by a professed desire to gag unwelcome content and disfavored viewpoints. Such a broad and ill-conceived ban infringes on Hammer’s rights, but the effects go far beyond the harm to any individual prisoner. The SCU Media Policy broadly suppresses valuable speech, and the record suggests it does so by design. As the panel decision below noted, “it can be an 25 easy thing for an inmate to allege that prison officials are lying about the rationale behind a prison restriction.” (App. 45a). But where, as here, an inmate “back[s] up his allegations with admissible evidence from which a reasonable jury could infer that an illegitimate reason lies behind the interview ban,” he deserves the opportunity to prove his case. (Id.). Amici respectfully request that the Court accept review of the decision below. Respectfully submitted, Lucy A. Dalglish Counsel of Record Gregg P. Leslie John Rory Eastburg The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press 1101 Wilson Blvd., Ste. 1100 Arlington, VA 22209-2211 (703) 807-2100 November 25, 2009 (Additional attorneys listed in Appendix B.) A-1 APPENDIX A Descriptions of amici: The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press is a voluntary, unincorporated association of reporters and editors that works to defend the First Amendment rights and freedom of information interests of the news media. The Reporters Committee has provided representation, guidance and research in First Amendment and Freedom of Information Act litigation since 1970. Advance Publications, Inc., directly and through its subsidiaries, publishes over 20 magazines with nationwide circulation, daily newspapers in over 20 cities, and weekly business journals in over 40 cities throughout the United States. It also owns, directly or through its subsidiaries, many internet sites and has interests in cable systems serving over 2.3 million subscribers. With some 600 members, ASNE is an organization that includes directing editors of daily newspapers throughout the Americas. ASNE changed its name in April 2009 to the American Society of News Editors and approved broadening its membership to editors of online news providers and academic leaders. Founded in 1922, as the American Society of Newspaper Editors, ASNE is active in a number of areas of interest to top editors with priorities on improving freedom of information, diversity, readership and credibility of newspapers. The Association of American Publishers, Inc. (“AAP”) is the national trade association of the U.S. book publishing industry. AAP’s members include most of the major commercial book publishers in the A-2 United States, as well as smaller and non-profit publishers, university presses, and scholarly societies. AAP members publish hardcover and paperback books in every field, educational materials for the elementary, secondary, postsecondary, and professional markets, scholarly journals, computer software, and electronic products and services. The Association represents an industry whose very existence depends upon the free exercise of rights guaranteed by the First Amendment. The Citizen Media Law Project ("CMLP") provides legal assistance, education, and resources for individuals and organizations involved in online and citizen media. CMLP is jointly affiliated with Harvard University’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society, a research center founded to explore cyberspace, share in its study, and help pioneer its development, and the Center for Citizen Media, an initiative to enhance and expand grassroots media. CMLP is an unincorporated association hosted at Harvard Law School, a non-profit educational institution. CMLP has previously appeared as an amicus on legal issues of importance to the media, including in Bank Julius Baer & Co. v. Wikileaks.org, No. 08CV824 (N.D. Cal. Feb. 26, 2008), Hatfill v. Mukasey, No.085049 (D.C. Cir. March 28, 2008), Maxon v. Ottawa Publishing Co., No. 2008-MR-125 (Ill. App. Ct. Mar. 24, 2009), The Mortgage Specialists, Inc. v. ImplodeExplode Heavy Industries, Inc., No. 2009-0262 (N.H. June 30, 2009), and United States v. Stevens, No. 08769 (S. Ct. July 24, 2009). Community Newspaper Holdings, Inc. (“CNHI”), through its subsidiaries, owns newspapers, television stations, Web sites and niche publications that serve more than 150 communities throughout the United A-3 States. Its titles include The Tribune Star, which is nearby the United States Penitentiary in Terre Haute, Indiana. Cox Media Group, Inc. (“CMG”) is a Delaware privately-held corporation. CMG’s direct and indirect subsidiaries and affiliates include companies that own and operate a variety of news media, including television stations, radio stations, newspapers and websites in multiple markets throughout the United States. The E.W. Scripps Company is a diverse, 130-yearold media enterprise with interests in television stations, newspapers, local news and information Web sites, and licensing and syndication. The company’s portfolio of locally focused media properties includes: 10 TV stations (six ABC affiliates, three NBC affiliates and one independent); daily and community newspapers in 13 markets and the Washington, D.C.-based Scripps Media Center, home of the Scripps Howard News Service; and United Media, the licensor and syndicator of Peanuts, Dilbert and approximately 150 other features and comics. The First Amendment Coalition is a nonprofit public interest organization dedicated to defending free speech, free press, and open-government rights in order to make government, at all levels, more accountable to the people. The Coalition’s mission assumes that government transparency and an informed electorate are essential to a self-governing democracy. To that end, we resist excessive government secrecy (while recognizing the need to protect legitimate state secrets) and censorship of all kinds. The Foundation for National Progress is a nonprofit, public benefit corporation and the publisher of A-4 Mother Jones magazine in print and online. Mother Jones has been involved in investigative journalism for more than thirty years, during which time it has won numerous awards, including five National Magazine Awards, most recently for General Excellence in 2001 and 2008. With a paid circulation of 230,000, Mother Jones magazine is the most widely read avowedly progressive publication in the United States. Regardless of the political inclinations of the administration in power, however, Mother Jones has relentlessly pursued investigations of the nation’s most powerful and socially significant institutions, including the nation’s prison system. Access to inmates is an indispensible prerequisite for meaningful investigation of and reporting on the prison system in particular and on the justice system as a whole. It is already extremely difficult to obtain such access, and granting penal authorities unfettered discretion to determine whether, when, and what inmates can communicate to the press will make it virtually impossible. Gannett Co., Inc. (“Gannett”) is an international news and information company that publishes 84 daily newspapers in the United States, including USA TODAY and The Indianapolis Star, and nearly 850 non-daily publications, including USA Weekend, a weekly newspaper magazine. Gannett also owns 23 television stations, and over 100 U.S. websites that are integrated with its publishing and broadcast operations. The Hoosier State Press Association (“HSPA”) is a corporate association whose members include 176 Indiana newspapers. The primary focus of the HSPA is to safeguard and advance the newspaper industry A-5 in the State of Indiana. The corporation is nonpolitical and nonsectarian. The Hoosier State Press Association Foundation is a non-profit entity whose members include 176 Indiana newspapers and other parties interested in the Foundation’s mission. The purpose of the Foundation is to enhance the ability of Indiana newspapers to fully educate and inform the public, and to defend the principles of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Human Rights Defense Center (HRDC) is a non-profit, charitable corporation that publishes a nationally distributed monthly journal called Prison Legal News. Since 1990, Prison Legal News has reported on news, recent court decisions, and other developments relating to the civil and human rights of prisoners in the United States and abroad. PLN has the most comprehensive coverage of detention facility litigation of any publication. In addition to reporting on the human and civil rights of prisoners, PLN also reports on the rights of crime victims, prison and jail employees, and prison and jail visitors. PLN has approximately 7,000 subscribers in all fifty states and abroad and eight times as many readers. Approximately sixty-five percent of PLN subscribers are state and federal prisoners. The remainder are attorneys, judges, advocates, journalists, academics and concerned citizens. PLN’s website, www.prisonlegalnews.org receives approximately 100,000 visitors per month. In addition to publishing Prison Legal News, PLN has regularly filed litigation under the First Amendment in federal courts nationwide, challenging prison officials who censor PLN. A-6 MediaNews Group is one of the largest newspaper companies in the United States. It operates or has an ownership interest in 54 daily newspapers in 11 states, with combined daily and Sunday circulation of approximately 2.4 million and 2.7 million, respectively. Each of its newspapers maintains a Web site focused on local news content, hosted by MediaNews Group Interactive. MediaNews Group also owns a television station in Anchorage, Alaska, and operates radio stations in Texas. The MediaNews Group newspapers and broadcast stations report on a vast variety of subjects, but crime, the punishment of criminals, the prison system, and the judicial system as a whole are the subject of constant investigation and reporting. This reporting includes, among other things, extensive coverage of the ongoing controversy regarding the methodology used for executions by lethal injection. Experience has taught the press that authorities in charge of penal institutions cannot necessarily be trusted to provide complete or accurate information about the conditions within them, and even the most forthright cannot provide the perspective of their inmates. If restrictions on inmates’ ability to communicate can be imposed at the whim of the authorities, it is predictable – indeed inevitable – that information critical to the public’s assessment of the efficacy and propriety of the conduct of those charged with operating the nation’s prisons will be suppressed, shielding from scrutiny and accountability those who need it most. National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of photojournalism in its creation, editing and distribution. NPPA’s almost 9,000 members include television and still photographers, editors, A-7 students and representatives of businesses that serve the photojournalism industry. Since its founding in 1946, the NPPA has vigorously promoted freedom of the press in all its forms, especially as that freedom relates to photojournalism. Given NPPA’s over sixty year history in photojournalism, it is wellpoised to address the importance of public access to prison issues and to explain how today, such access greatly depends on the presence of audio-visual coverage, which by its very nature necessitates inperson interviews. The New York Times Company is the publisher of The New York Times, the International Herald Tribune, The Boston Globe, and 15 other daily newspapers. It also owns and operates WQXR-FM and more than 50 websites, including nytimes.com, Boston.com and About.com. Newspaper Association of America (NAA) is a nonprofit organization representing the interests of more than 2,000 newspapers in the United States and Canada. NAA members account for nearly 90 percent of the daily newspaper circulation in the United States and a wide range of non-daily newspapers. One of NAA’s key strategic priorities is to advance newspapers’ First Amendment interests, including the ability to gather and report the news. The Newspaper Guild – CWA is a labor organization representing more than 30,000 employees of newspapers, newsmagazines, news services and related media enterprises. Guild representation comprises, in the main, the advertising, business, circulation, editorial, maintenance and related departments of these media outlets. The Newspaper Guild is a sector of the Communications Workers of Amer- A-8 ica. As America’s largest communications and media union, representing over 700,000 men and women in both private and public sectors, CWA issues no stock and has no parent corporations. The Radio Television Digital News Association is the world’s largest and only professional organization devoted exclusively to electronic journalism. RTDNA is made up of news directors, news associates, educators and students in radio, television, cable and electronic media in more than 30 countries. RTDNA is committed to encouraging excellence in the electronic journalism industry and upholding First Amendment freedoms. The Society of Professional Journalists is dedicated to improving and protecting journalism. It is the nation’s largest and most broad-based journalism organization, dedicated to encouraging the free practice of journalism and stimulating high standards of ethical behavior. Founded in 1909 as Sigma Delta Chi, SPJ promotes the free flow of information vital to a well-informed citizenry; works to inspire and educate the next generation of journalists; and protects First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech and press. Stephens Media LLC is a nationwide newspaper publisher whose operations include the Las Vegas Review-Journal, the largest newspaper in Nevada. Stephens Media also publishes daily newspapers from North Carolina to Hawaii. Tribune Company operates businesses in publishing, broadcasting and interactive, including eight daily newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune and Baltimore Sun, 23 television stations, WGN America and WGN Radio. Popular A-9 websites add breadth and depth to the news coverage provided by these organizations. The Washington Post is a leading newspaper with nationwide daily circulation of over 647,000 and a Sunday circulation of over 878,000.. A-10 APPENDIX B Additional counsel for amici: Richard A. Bernstein Neil M. Rosenhouse Sabin, Bermant & Gould LLP 4 Times Square, 23rd floor New York, New York 10036-6526 Counsel for Advance Publications, Inc. Kevin M. Goldberg Fletcher Heald & Hildreth 1300 North 17th Street, 11th Floor Arlington, VA 22209 Counsel for The American Society of News Editors Jonathan Bloom Weil, Gotshal & Manges LLP 767 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10153 Counsel for The Association of American Publishers, Inc. David Ardia Samuel Bayard Citizen Media Law Project Berkman Center for Internet & Society 23 Everett Street, Second Floor Cambridge, MA 02138 Matthew Gray General Counsel Community Newspaper Holdings, Inc. 3500 Colonnade Parkway, Suite 600 Birmingham, AL 35243 A-11 Andrew A. Merdek, Esq. Vice President Legal Affairs, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary Cox Enterprises, Inc. 6205 Peachtree Dunwoody Road Atlanta, GA 30328 David M. Giles Deputy General Counsel The E.W. Scripps Company 312 Walnut Street, Suite 2800 Cincinnati, OH 45202 Peter Scheer, Executive Director First Amendment Coalition 534 4th St., Suite B San Rafael, CA 94901 James Chadwick Sheppard Mullin Richter & Hampton LLP 990 Marsh Road Menlo Park, CA 94025-1949 Counsel for The Foundation for National Progress Barbara W. Wall Vice President/ Senior Associate General Counsel Gannett Co., Inc. 7950 Jones Branch Drive McLean, VA 22107 Steve Key Hoosier State Press Association 41 E. Washington St., Suite 301 Indianapolis, IN 46204 Counsel for the Hoosier State Press Association and the Hoosier State A-12 Press Association Foundation Marshall W. Anstandig Senior Vice President/General Counsel MediaNews Group, Inc. 750 Ridder Park Drive San Jose, CA 95190 Andy Huntington General Counsel & Director, Labor Relations San Jose Mercury News 750 Ridder Park Dr. San Jose, CA 95190 Counsel for MediaNews Group, Inc. Mickey H. Osterreicher, Esq. 69 Delaware Avenue Suite 500 Buffalo, NY 14202 Counsel for National Press Photographers Association George Freeman David McCraw The New York Times Company Legal Department 620 8th Ave. New York, NY 10018 René P. Milam Newspaper Association of America 4401 Wilson Blvd., Suite 900 Arlington, VA 22203 Barbara L. Camens Barr & Camens 1025 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 712 Washington, DC 20036 Counsel for The Newspaper Guild - CWA A-13 Kathleen A. Kirby Wiley Rein LLP 1776 K Street NW Washington, DC 20006 Counsel for The Radio Television Digital News Association Bruce W. Sanford Bruce D. Brown Laurie A. Babinski Baker & Hostetler LLP 1050 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 1100 Washington, DC 20036 Counsel for The Society of Professional Journalists Mark Hinueber Vice President/General Counsel Stephens Media LLC Post Office Box 70 Las Vegas, NV 89125 Karen H. Flax Charles J. Sennet Tribune Company 435 North Michigan Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611 Eric N. Lieberman, Esq. James A. McLaughlin, Esq. The Washington Post 1150 15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20071