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Ninth Circuit Discusses Anonymous Party Requirements

At 1068: "... [A] party may preserve his or her anonymity in judicial proceedings in special circumstances when the party's need for anonymity outweighs prejudice to the opposing party and the public's interest in knowing the party's identity." Where fear of retaliation is the claimed basis for anonymity, the district court should consider the severity of the threatened harm, the reasonableness of the party's fears, and the party's vulnerability to retaliation. The court should also consider whether the public's interest is served by anonymity. The balance may change as the litigation progresses, and the court may use protective orders to protect anonymity to the extent possible. See: Does I through XXIII v. Advanced Textile Corp., 214 F.3d 1058 (9th Cir. 2000).

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Related legal case

Does I through XXIII v. Advanced Textile Corp.