Morgan Expert Opinion Re Police Use of Force 2011
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EXHIBIT "C" Charles A. Morgan, III, M.D., M.A. New Haven Forensic Consultants LLC 234 Church Street, Suite 301 New Haven, CT 06520 203-773-0478 New Haven Forensic Consultants, LLC 234 Church Street New Haven, CT 06510 (203) 773-0478 email@example.com Lisa A. Barclay, Esq. SNIFFEN & SPELLMAN, P.A. 123 North Monroe Street Tallahassee, Florida 32301 Telephone: (850) 205-1996 Dear Attorney Barclay, I have had an opportunity to review the documents you sent to me (see below) and have prepared the following letter. It was my understanding based on our conversation that I would A) review the documents noted below; B) provide comment regarding what is scientifically known about the nature ofthe human response to highly stressful events; C) give you my current opinion about the memory accounts provided in the documents below. Documents reviewed: Arias Incident Report Internal affairs Investigation re Officer Pulido Second Amended Complaint Pulido Use of Force Report Pulido TPD Interview Dixon Interview Creamer Incident Report The Human Response to Highly Stressful Events: The majority of scientific knowledge that informs what is currently known about the impact ofthreat to life situations on human physiology, neurobiology and cognitive performance is derived from studies conducted in military populations, law enforcement personnel, and victims of trauma. This body of scientific information regarding humans and how they respond to highly stressful events is compatible with a large body of scientific studies on the impact of stress on the neurophysiology and performance of non human animals. Taken together, this body of scientific knowledge indicate that it is within a reasonable degree of medical certainty that exposure to extreme situations and environments (i.e. those entailing realistic threats to life and physical safety) induce EXHIBIT I ~-\ levels of stress that can negatively impact the ability of humans to think clearly, to form accurate memories and to make decisions. l The primary reason why stress can negatively impact human cognition is this: Our bodies have systems that help protect us when we are in danger (i.e., our "fight/flight" response) and these systems exhibit increased activity during times of significant stress. Some of the critical hormones that are involved in our stress response are Cortisol,Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E). Although they are extremely beneficial in facilitating our ability to respond effectively to dangerous situations, they can be disruptive to areas of the brain involved in decision making and memory. For example, cortisol, (a class of steroid hormones released from the adrenal glands) is essential for life and regulates a variety of important cardiovascular, metabolic immunologic and homeostatic functions. Cortisol plays a critical role in human adaptation to stress. Cortisol mobilizes energy, suppresses nonessential anabolic activity, and increases cardiovascular tone. Since the 1960 s scientific evidence has established that cortisol significantly increases with subjective awareness of distress. This is to say, if there is little psychological distress, elevations of cortisol are not observed; if there psychological distress cortisol will rise. Indeed, the greater the subjective distress, the greater the release of cortisol. Regarding human cognition, over the past two decades numerous scientific studies have demonstrated that exposure to high levels of stress (and the stress associated elevations of cortisol) may cause physiological harm: specifically, the high levels of cortisol induced by the stress damage neurons in some specific areas of the brain that are critical to information storage and memory. Stress-induced levels of cortisol (as well as cortisol related hormones) have been reported to correlate with cognitive deficits in humans and have been shown to selectively impair verbal declarative memory. As noted above, NE is another critical neurohormone involved in the human stress response. As in other animals, NE helps humans during stress by assisting their ability to selectively attend to meaningful stimuli. However, under stressful conditions when NE release is increased in large quantities, it causes a decline in functioning in an area of the brain that is critical to decision making: the prefrontal cortex. Although this inhibition of PFC functioning during a stressful or dangerous situations may have value for enhancing our ability to survive - by allowing us to employ rapid habitual (subcortical) modes of responding - inhibition of the PFC has a negative effect on cognitive functions related to decision making and memory. Indeed, within military personnel, the negative impact of combat stress on cognitive functioning is so common it is referred to as the "fog of war" and has negated the assumption on the part of medical professionals that cognitive deficits observed in healthy service members are pathognomonic (i.e. a sign of illness or pathology). 1 Human Memory for Highly Stressful Events: Although a great deal of non human animal and human data indicate that increases in NE and E have been shown to enhance memory retrieval when administered at the time of memory testing, this beneficial effect on memory has been documented in situations of controllable or moderate stress. Over that past two decades, numerous studies in humans have provided empirical evidence that increases in NE that are associated with highly intense realistically stressful events, degrade human cognition and memory. These data, from controlled studies, are important and have helped us understand a great deal about the nature of human memory for traumatic events. Prior to 1993, it was commonly believed by trauma specialists and scientists working in the field of trauma that memories for traumatic events were indelible and did not change over time. This belief however is no longer supported by scientific evidence. Numerous studies in war veterans and with military personnel now exist and have provided robust evidence that memories for traumatic events are not indelible, but are subject to substantial <;tlterations over time. These studies have demonstrated that individuals exposed to highly stressful or traumatic event make alterations in both the content of their memories (i.e. the identity of people, events, injuries, deaths witnessed) and in the chronological elements of their memories (i.e. alterations in the perception of time, the order in which events have occurred). Finally, these studies have provided evidence that such alterations in memory are not restricted to people suffering from psychiatric illnesses or from other medical problems. To the contrary, these studies show that alterations or errors in memory can occur in health individuals. Opinion about the memory recall content in the materials reviewed: Concerning the materials that I have reviewed, it is my opinion that the events experienced by Officer Pulido can be legitimately characterized as a traumatic event. By this, I mean to indicate that the events describe meet both subjective and objective criteria as described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000). As such, it is within a reasonable degree of medical certainty that the events triggered a significant fight flight response in Officer Pudilo. I have reviewed his statements about his recollections during the events and have, at your request, attended to his account ofthe events while in the back of the truck. Based on my clinical experience working with people exposed to traumatic events, my experience conducting scientific studies on the nature of memory for highly stressful and/or traumatic events, my experience conducting studies of genuine and deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events, it is my opinion that it is within a reasonable degree of medical certainty that the memory accounts provided by Officer Pulido are consistent with genuine memory accounts noted in people exposed to highly stressful and/or traumatic events. The accounts where not characterized by the features associated with deceptive eyewitness accounts. I would be happy to review any additional infonnation or materials you may have. As you know, my opinion about the materials related to this case is based on the infonnation you have provided to me at this time. Additional infonnation, if inconsistent with what I have reviewed may alter my opinion. Sincerely CA Morgan III MD, MA Forensic Psychiatrist New Haven Forensic Consulting, LLC Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry Yale University School of Medicine National Center for PTSD, West Haven, CT Tax Id# 20-0260301 New Haven Forensic Consultants LLC 234 Church Street, Suite 301 New Haven. Connecticut065l0 Telephone: 203 773-0478 Facsimile: 203 244'4239 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org F ebruar::J 17,20 J 1 Usa A. Darcla::J' LS9' 5nitten & 5pellman, F.A. 123 North Monroe 5treet Tallahassee, Florida 32301 fer ::Jour re9uest, this letter provides intormation regarding Dr. Charles A. Morgan's tees: Dr. Morgan's tee per hour is $ 300 ]t is the polic::J at New Haven Forensic Consultants to re9uest a retainer in the amount ot $2500 I hope this intormation is helpful to ::Jou. flease do not hesitate to be in touch with me if ::Jou have an::J 9uestions. Jenniter Dolan-Auten Administrative Assistant New Haven Forensic Consultants, LLC EXHIBIT I~-~ BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH NAME POSITION TITLE Charles A. Morgan III, M.D., M.A. (GS-15) Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Research Affiliate, Histo of Medicine, Yale Universi EDUCATION INSTITUTION AND LOCATION Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA. Lorna Linda University School of Medicine, CA Yale University Yale University DEGREE YEAR CONFERRED B.A. M.D. M.A. Fellowship 1982 1986 1996 2002 FIELD OF STUDY French Medicine History of Medicine Forensic Psychiatry RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE 1986-87 1987-89 1988-89 1989-90 1990-93 1990-91 1991-92 1991-92 1992-93 19931993-96 19962001-02 20022002- 2003- 20042005- 20062007- Internship, Jerry 1. Pettis Memorial VA Hospital, Lorna Linda, CA. Psychiatry Resident, Dept. of Psychiatry, Lorna Linda, University Medical Center, Lorna Linda, CA. Staff Psychiatrist, David & Margaret Home for Girls, La Verne, CA: Chief Resident, Neurobiological Studies Unit, National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, West Haven VA Medical Center, West Haven, CT. Yale University Dept. of Psychiatry Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine. Medical Director, Dual Diagnosis Unit & Medical Director, Neurobiological Studies Unit, National Center for PTSD. V.A. Medical Center, West Haven, CT. Director of Substance Abuse/PTSD Clinic, Medical Director, Desert Storm Outreach Clinic, VA Medical Center, West Haven, CT. Director of Outpatient Psychotherapies, PTSDIAnxiety Clinic, National Center for PTSD, VAMC, West Haven, CT. Assistant Director, Outpatient Mental Health Department of Psychiatry, WHYAMC. Court Clinic Psychiatrist, Yale Dept. of Law and Psychiatry. Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine. Associate Professor of Psychiatry & Research Affiliate, History of Medicine, Yale University Associate Director PTSD Program, National Center for PTSD,VA Connecticut. Fellow, Law & Psychiatry Fellowship Program, Yale University Department of Psychiatry. Associate Professor of Psychiatry & Research Affiliate, History of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine Fellow ofthe Jonathan Edwards College, Yale College, Yale University. Director, Human Performance and Psychophysiology Laboratory, National Center for PTSD, VA Connecticut; Attending Physician, Section of Law & Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine. Attending Physician, VA Connecticut, West Haven, CT. & National Center for PTSD. Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Research Affiliate, History of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine; Subject Matter Expert, JFK Special Warfare Center and School, Fort Bragg, NC; Director, Human Performance and Psychophysiology Laboratory, National Center for PTSD, VA Connecticut; Attending Physician in Psychiatry & in the Section of Law & Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine; Editorial Board member, Psychiatry. Appointed to the position of Government Subject Matter Expert to the United States Intelligence Science Board for the Director of National Intelligence Educing Information Report, published in 2007 by the DNI; Masters Thesis Advisor, Joint Military Intelligence College, Bolling AFB, Washington, DC. Visiting Professor of Psychiatry, University of Bergen, Norway. Department of Operational Psychology. Special Advisor, Office of the Inspector General, Department of Defense, for investigation of project 'Able Danger.' ON GOING AS NOTED ABOVE. EXHIBIT I t . .~ Special Awards: The Stephen Fleck Faculty Award as Exemplary Physician and Clinical Teacher, Yale Department of Psychiatry, 1996-97. Lucia P. Fulton Fellowship Award (History of Medicine, the Nathan Smith Club, Yale University School of Medicine) 1999. Special teaching award, Yale School of Medicine, Physician Associate Program, 2002. Visiting Professorship Award, Department of Operational Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway. November 2006. Grand Rounds, Ether Dome, Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, Mass General Hospital, Harvard University, March 1, 2007. United States Army Patriot Award, 2008. International Forensic Experience: Expert Witness, International Tribunal for War Crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia, United Nations Court, The Hague, Netherlands. Case: The Prosecutor vs. Anto Furundzija. 1998. Grants & Contracts: Principal Investigator: Assessment of Baseline and Fear Potentiated Acoustic Startle in PTSD, July 1,1992. V.A. R.A.G. (completed) Co-Principal Investigator: Stattle Modulation in Combat Veterans with PTSD, 1993-1998, NIMH. (completed). Principal Investigator: Psychobiological Assessment of High Intensity Military Training. (DoD}. Funding ongoing; Total funding to date: $500,000.00 through fiscal year 2002. Principal Investigator: Selection of Elite Special Operations Personnel. Joint Personnel Recovery Association. $100,000. Principal Investigator: Effect of Post-Stress Carbohydrate Administration on Cognitive and Memory Function in Special Operations Soldiers. $125,000. Funding Source: US Army Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). Fiscal year 2003. Principal Investigator: Accuracy of Memory for People, Places and Events Experienced During High Stress. (USDoD). $200,000. Fiscal year 2005-6. Principal Investigator: $750,000. Funding Source: US DoD. Efficacy of Forensic Statement Analysis and of Cognitive Load Assessments in the Detection of Deception. Fiscal year 2006-2007. Principal Investigator: $798,000. Funding Source: US DoD (CIFA) Fiscal year 2007-2008. Basic and Advanced Interviewing Training designed to enhance credibility assessments. SELECTED PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS: Nagy L, Morgan CA, Southwick SM, Charney DS: An open trial offluoxetine in the treatment ofPTSD. JClin Psychopharm Vol 13, No.2, 107-113, (1993). Southwick SM, Krystal JH, Morgan CA, Johnson DR, Nagy LM, Nicolaou A, Heninger DR, Charney DS: Abnormal Noradrenergic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 50,266-274, (1993) Southwick SM, Morgan CA, Nagy LM, Bremner DJ, Nicolaou A, Johnson DR, Rosenheck R, Charney DS: Trauma-Related Symptoms in Veterans of Operation Desert Storm: A Preliminary Report, Am J Psychiatry, 150: 10, 1524-1528, (1993) Morgan CA, Grillon C, Southwick SM, Krystal JH, Davis M, Charney DS: Yohimbine Facilitated Acoustic Startle Reflex in Humans, Psychopharmacol, 110:342-346, (1993). Morgan CA, Grillon C, Southwick S, Nagy LM,Davis M, Krystal, J.H., & Charney D. Yohimbine facilitated acoustic startle in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacol, 1995, 117:466-471. Morgan C.A., Grillon C., Southwick S.M., Davis M., & Charney D.S. Fear-potentiated startle in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1995,38:378-385. Morgan CA and Johnson DR: Art therapy as a treatment for nightmares in PTSD, Am J Art Ther, 12:4 (1995). Morgan C.A., Grillon c., Southwick S.M., Davis M., & Charney D.S. Fear-potentiated startle in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1995,38:378-385. Southwick SM, Morgan CA, Nicholau A, Darnell A, Charney DS: Trauma Related Symptomatology in Desert Storm Veterans: Two yearfollow-up, Am J ofPsychiatry, 152;8, 1150-1155,(1995). Morgan CA, Grillon C, Southwick S, Davis M, Krystal, J.H., & Charney D. Exaggerated acoustic startle in Gulf war veterans with PTSD. Am J Psychiatry, 1996, 153:64-68. Karper L.P., Freeman G.K., Grillon C., Morgan C.A., Charney D.S., & Krystal lH. Preliminary evidence of an association between sensorimotor gating and distractibility in psychosis. J Neuropsych. Clin Neurosc., 8, 60-66: 1996. Grillon C., Morgan CA, Southwick S, Davis M, & Charney D. Baseline startle amplitude and PPI in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res., 64, 169-178: 1996. Krystal J.H., Webb E., Grillon C., Cooney N., Casa L., Morgan C.A, III, Southwick S.M., Davis M., & Charney D.S. Evidence of acoustic startle hyper-reflexia in recently detoxified alcoholics: Modulation by yohimbine and m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP). Psychopharmacol, 131,207-215: 1997. Southwick SM, Morgan III CA, Nicolaou AL, Charney DS: Consistency of Memory for Combat-Related Traumatic Events in Veterans of Operation Desert Storm. Am J Psychiatry (1997) 154:173-177. . Morgan CA, Grillon C, Southwick SM: Startle Abnormalities in Women with Sexual Assault related PTSD. Am J Psychiatry (1997) 154:1076-1080. Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Bremner, l Douglas; Morgan, C. A. III; et al. Noradrenergic and serotonergic function in posttraumatic stress disorder. [Journal Article] Archives of General Psychiatry. Vol 54(8) Aug 1997, 749-758. Grillon C, Morgan CA, Davis M, & Southwick SM. Effects of experimental context and explicit threat cues on acoustic startle in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Bioi Psychiatry, Nov 15 1998,44(10) pl027-36. Morgan CA, Kingham P, Nicolaou A, Southwick SM: Anniversary Reactions in Desert Storm Veterans: A Naturalistic Inquiry 2 years after the Gulf War. J of Traumatic Stress Vol. 11, No.1, 1998. Grillon C, Morgan CA, Davis M, & Southwick SM. Effects of darkness on acoustic startle in Vietnam veterans with PTSD, Am J Psychiatry, 155,812-817, 1998. Grillon C & Morgan CA: Fear Contextual Startle Conditioning to Explicit and Contextual Cues in Gulf War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. J Abn Psychology, (1999) 108: 134-142. Morgan CA, III & Grillon C. Abnormal mismatch negativity in women with sexual assault related PTSD. Bioi Psychiatry, (1999) 45: 827-832. Morgan CA, Hill SR, Fox P, Kingham P, Southwick SM: Anniversary Reactions in Gulf War Veterans: A 6-Year Follow-up Report. Am J Psychiatry, (July,1999), 156(7) pl075-9. Southwick SM, Morgan III CA, Charney DS, High JR: Yohimbine Use in a Natural Setting: Effects on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Bioi Psychiatry (1999) 46:442-444. Southwick SM, Bremner JD, Rasmusson A, Morgan III CA, Arnsten A, Charney DS: Role of Norepinephrine in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Bioi Psychiatry (1999) 46 (9): 1192-1204. Southwick, Steven M; Morgan, Charles A. III; Charney, Dennis S; High, James R. Yohimbine use in a natural setting: Effects on posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry. Vol 46(3) Aug 1999,442-444. Southwick, Steven M; Bremner, J. Douglas; Rasmusson, Ann; Morgan, Charles A. III; Amsten, Amy; Charney, Dennis S. Role of norepinephrine in the pathophysiology and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry. VoI46(9) Nov 1999, 1192-1204. Morgan III CA, Wang S, Mason J, Hazlett G, Fox P, Southwick SM, Charney DS, Greenfield G: Hormone Profiles in Humans Experiencing Military Survival Training. Bioi Psychiatry, 2000; 47: 891-901. Morgan III CA, Wang S, Southwick SM, Rasmusson A, Hauger R, Charney DS: Plasma Neuropeptide-Y in Humans Exposed to Military Survival Training. Bioi Psychiatry 2000; 47: 902-909. Rassmusen A, Morgan CA, Hauger S, Bremner DJ, Southwick SM: Plasma NPY in response to Yohimbine Challenge in combat veterans with, and without Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 47:526-539. Morgan III CA, Wang S, Hazlett G, Rassmusson A, Anderson G, Charney DS: Relationships among Cortisol, Catecholamines, Neuropeptide Y and Human Performance During Uncontrollable Stress. Psychosomatic Med. 63: 412-42; 2001. Stine, Susan M; Grillon, Christian G; Morgan, Charles A. III; Kosten, Thomas R; Charney, Dennis S; Krystal, John H. Methadone patients exhibit increased startle and cortisol response after intravenous yohimbine. [Journal Article] Psychopharmacology. Vol 154(3) Mar 2001, 274-281. Southwick SM, Morgan CA, Rosenburg R: Social Sharing About Gulf War Experiences: Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Am J Psychiatry, In press. Morgan III CA, Hazlett G, Wang S, Richardson G, Schnurr P, Southwick SM~ Symptoms of Dissociation in Humans Experiencing Acute Uncontrollable Stress: A Prospective Investigation. Am J psychiatry, 158:8; 1239-1247.2001. Morgan III CA, Rassmusson A, Wang S, Hauger R, Hazlett G: Neuropeptide-Y, Cortisol and Subjective Distress in Humans Exposed to Acute Stress: Replication and Extension of a Previous Report. Biol Psychiatry. 52: (2) 136-142,2002. Morgan III CA, Hazlett G, Cho TA, Coric V, Morgan J: The impact of burnout on human physiology and on operational performance. Yale Journal ofBiology and Medicine, 2002; 75; pp 199-205. Lipschitz, Deborah S; Morgan, Charles A. 33; Southwick, Steven M. Neurobiological disturbances in youth with childhood trauma and in youth with conduct disorder. [Journal Article] Journal ofAggression, Maltreatment & Trauma. Vo16(l) 2002, 149-174. Southwick, Steven M; Davis, Michael; Horner, Beverly; Cahill, Larry; Morgan, Charles A. 33; Gold, Paul E; Bremner, J. Douglas; Charney, Dennis C. Relationship of enhanced norepinephrine activity during memory consolidation to enhanced long-term memory in humans. American Journal ofPsychiatry. Vol 159(8) Aug 2002, 1420-1422. Baas, Johanna M. P; Grillon, Christian; Boecker, Koen B. E; Brack, Anouk A; Morgan, Charles A. 33; Kenemans, J. Leon; Verbaten, Marinus N. Benzodiazepines have no effect on fear-potentiated startle in humans. Psychopharmacology. Vol 161(3) May 2002,233-247. Rasmusson, Ann M; Vythilingam, Meena; Morgan, Charles A III. The Neuroendocrinology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: New Directions. eNS Spectrums. Vol 8(9) Sep 2003,651-667. Grillon C, Cordova J, Levine L, Morgan III CA: Anxiolytic Effects of a Novel Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist (LY354740) in the Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm in Humans. Psychopharmacology, Vol 168(4) Aug 2003, 446454. Morgan III CA, Southwick SM, Krystal JH: Toward a Pharmacology of Acute Stress Disorders. Biological Psychiatry, Vol 53(9) May 2003, 834-843. Morgan III CA, Rasmusson A, Winters B, Hauger RL, Morgan J, Hazlett GA, Southwick SM: Trauma Exposure Rather than PTSD is Associated with Baseline Neuropeptide Y Levels. Biol Psychiatry, Vol 54(10) Nov 2003, 1087-1091. Morgan III CA, Hazlett GA, Doran T, Garrett S, Hoyt G, Baranoski M, Thomas P, Southwick SM: Accuracy of Eyewitness Memory for Persons Encountered During Exposure to Highly Intense Stress. International Journal ofPsychiatry and the Law,2004 vol 27/3: pp 265-279. Morgan III CA, Hazlett GA, Rasmusson A, Zimolo Z, Southwick SM, Charney DS: Relationships Among Plasma Dehydroepiandrosteron Sulfate and Cortisol Levels, Symptoms of Dissociation and Objective Performance in Humans Exposed to Acute Stress. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61:819-825. Grillon, Christian; Cordova, Jeremy; Morgan, Charles Andrew III; Charney, Dennis S; Davis, Michael. Effects of the betablocker propranolol on cued and contextual fear conditioning in humans. Psychopharmacology. Vol 175(3) Sep 2004, 342352. Rasmusson, Ann M; Vasek, Jitka; Lipschitz, Deborah S, Vojvoda, Dolores, Mustone, Mary Ellen, Shi, Quihu, Gudmundsen, Gretchen, Morgan, Charles A; Wolfe, Jessica; Charney, Dennis S. An increased capacity for adrenal DHEA release is associated with decreased avoidance and negative mood symptoms in women with PTSD. Neuropsychopharmacology. Vol 29(8) Aug 2004, 1546-1557. Southwick, Steven M; Axelrod, Seth R; Wang, Sheila; Yehuda, Rachel; Morgan, CA III; Charney, Dennis; Rosenbeck, Robert; Mason, John W. Twenty-four-hour cortisol in combat veterans with PTSD and comorbid borderline personality disorder. [References]. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Journal ofNervous & Mental Disease. Vol 191(4) Apr 2003,261-262. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, U Lieberman, Harris R, Bathalon, Gaston P, Falco, Christina M, Morgan, Charles A III, Nira, Philip J, Tharion, William J: The Fog of War: Decrements in Cognitive Performance and Mood Associated with Combat-like Stress. Aviation, Space and Evironmental Medicine Vol 76, No.7, Section II, July 2005. Lieberman, Harris R; Bathalon, Gaston P; Falco, Christina M; Kramer, F, Morgan, Charles A III; Niro, Philip. Severe Decrements in Cognition Function and Mood Induced by Sleep Loss, Heat, Dehydration, and Undernutrition During Simulated Combat. Biological Psychiatry. Vol 57(4) Feb 2005, 422-429. Morgan III CA, Doran A, Steffian G, Hazlett G, Southwick SM (2006): Stress Induced Deficits in Working Memory and Visuo-Constructive Abilities in Special Operations Soldiers. Biological Psychiatry, vol 60; (7); 722-729. Eid J & Morgan III CA: Dissociation, Hardiness and Performance in Military Cadets Participating in Survival Training. Military Medicine, Vol 171, 5:436,2006. Southwick, Steven M; Morgan, Charles A III; Vythilingam, Meena; Charney, Dennis. Mentors enhance resilience in at-risk children and adolescents. [References]. [Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal] Psychoanalytic Inquiry. Vol 26(4) Sep-Oct 2006, 577-584 Morgan III CA, Hazlett G, Aikins D, Doran A, Baranoski M: Efficacy of Expected Alternative Testing Dilemmas in the Detection of Concealed Information in Humans Exposed to Interrogation Stress. Journal for Intelligence Community Research & Development (HCRD), November 2006. Morgan III CA, Aikins D, Steffian G, Coric V, Southwick SM: Relation Between Cardiac Vagal Tone and Performance in Male Military Personnel Exposed to High Stress: Three Prospective Studies. Psychophysiology, Vol 44(1) January 2007, 120127. Morgan III CA, Hazlett G, Baranoski M, Doran A, Southwick SM, Loftus E: Accuracy of Eyewitness Identification is Significantly Associated with Performance on a Standardized Test of Recognition. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, Vol 30, Issue 3, May-June 2007, pp 213-223. Morgan III CA, Steffian G, Colwell K, Coric V, Hazlett G: Efficacy of Forensic Statement Analysis in Distinguishing True from False Eyewitness Accounts. Journal for Intelligence Community Research and Development (HCRD). July 2007. Whealin JM, Batzer W, Morgan CA III, Detwiler HF, Schnurr P, Friedman M: Cohesion, burnout and past trauma in triservice medical and support personnel. Military Medicine 172,266-272.2007. Steffian, G., Bluestein, B., Ogrisseg, Doran, A., and Morgan CA 3 rd (2006) Code of Conduct and the Psychology of Captivity: Training, Coping, and Reintegration in Military Life edited by Adler, Castro and Britt. Praeger Security International, CT. Dimoulas E, Steffian L, Steffian G, Doran AP, Rasmusson AM, Morgan CA 3rd : (2007) Dissociation During Intense Military Stress is Related to Subsequent Somatic Symptoms in Women, Psychiatry, Volume 4 - Issue i (February 2007). Morgan III CA, Steffian G, Coric V, Hazlett G: Detecting Deception in Arabic: Efficacy of Forced-Choice Testing Dilemmas in Morrocans. Journal for the Intelligence Community Research & Development (HCRD), August 2007. Morgan III CA, Steffian G, Hazlett G: Detecting Deception and Concealed Information in Special Operations Forces. Journal for Intelligence Community Research and Development (HCRD), March 2008. Morgan III CA, Hazlett GA, Dial Ward M, Southwick SM: Baseline Dissociation and Prospective Success in Special Forces Assessment and Selection. Psychiatry, 2008; 5(7): 52-57. Morgan III CA, Colwell K, Steffian G, Hazlett G: Efficacy of Verbal and Global Judgments in the Detection of Deception in Moroccans Interviewed Via an Interpreter. Journal for Intelligence Community Research and Development (JICRD), March 2008. Morgan III CA, Mishara A, Christian J, Hazlett G: Detecting Deception: through Automated Analysis of Translated Speech: Credibility Assessments of Arabic Speaking Interviewees. nCRD, August 2008. Morgan III CA, Dial Ward, MD, Christian J, Hazlett G: Improving HUMINT: Predicting Who Will be a More Accurate Eyewitness. nCRD, August 2008. Morgan, CA, Hazlett G, Southwick SM, Rasmusson A, Lieberman HR: Effect of Carbohydrate Administration on Recovery from Stress-Induced Deficits in Cognitive Function: A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Soldiers Exposed to Survival School Stress. Military Medicine, 174; 3:2009. Morgan III CA & Hazlett G: Efficacy of Forced Choice Testing in Detecting Deception in Russian. HCRC, January 2009. Morgan, CA, Rasmusson A, Pietrzak RH, Coric V, Southwick, SM: Relationships among Plasma Dehydroepiandrosterone .and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, Cortisol, Symptoms of Dissociation and Objective Performance in Humans Exposed to Underwater Navigation Stress. Biological Psychiatry, Volume 66, Issue 4 (August 15,2009). Pietrzak RH, Johnson DC, Goldstein MB, Malley JC, Rivers AJ, Morgan CA, Southwick SM: Pschosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: The role of resilience, unit support and postdeployment social support. Journal of Affective Disorders in press. McNeil JA & Morgan III CA: Cognition and Decision-Making in Extreme Environments, In press. McNeil JA & Morgan III, CA: US Medical Diplomacy: PTSD and Reintegration of Liberian Former Combatants, In press. Other Journal Articles: Morgan, C.A., Feuerstein, S., Fortunati, F., Coric, V., Temparini, H., & Southwick, S. (2005). Posttraumatic stress disorder within the forensic arena. Psychiatry (2005), 2(10), 21-24. Morgan, CA., Gelles, M.G., Steffian, G., Temporini, H., Fortunati, F., Southwick, S., Feuerstein, S., & Carie, V. (2006). Consulting to government agencies - Indirect assessment. Psychiatly (2006). 3(2),24-28. Southwick SM, Vojvoda D, Morgan CA, Lipschitz D: Persian Gulf War, Stress Effects of. Encyclopedia of Stress, volume 3, pp 142-148, in press. Southwick SM, Paige S, Morgan CA, Bremner JD, Krystal JH, Charney DS: Neurotransmitter Alterations in PTSD: Catecholamines and Serotonin. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry; (1999) Vol. 4, (October), pp 242-248. Morgan CA, and Grillon C: Acoustic Startle in Individuals with PTSD. Psych Annals, (1998) Vol. 28 (8); 430-434. Coric, V., Feuerstein, S., Fortunati, F., Southwick, S., Temporini, H., & Morgan, C.A. (2005). Assessing sex offenders. Psychiatry (2005), 2(11),26-29. Feuerstein, S., Fortunati, F., Morgan, CA., Coric, V., Temporini, H., & Southwick, S. (2005). Forensic psychiatry - A specialty with variety. Psychiatry (2005), 2(7), 49-50. Feuerstein, S., Fortunati, F., Morgan, CA., Coric, V., Temporini, H., & Southwick, S. (2005). Civil commitment - A power granted to physicians by the state. Psychiatry (2005), 2(8), 53-54. Feuerstein, S., Fortunati, F., Morgan, CA., Coric, V., Temporini, H., & Southwick, S. (2005). The insanity defense. Psychiatry (2005), 2(9),24-25. Feuerstein, S., Coric, V., Fortunati, F., Southwick, S., Temporini, H., & Morgan, C.A. (2005). Malingering and forensic psychiatry. Psychiatry (2005), 2(12),25-28. Temporini, H., Feuerstein, S., Coric, V., Fortunati, F., Southwick, S., & Morgan, C.A. (2006). Correctional psychiatry. Psychiatry (2006), 3(1),26-29. Chapters: Southwick SM, Yehuda R, Morgan CA: Clinical Studies of Neurotransmitter Alterations in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In: Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Stress: From normal adaptation to PTSD, Eds: Friedman MJ, Charney DS, and Deutch AY, Lippencott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, (1995) Chapter 18, pp 335-349. Southwick SM, Morgan CA: West Haven VA Medical Center Operation Desert Storm findings. In: Returning Persian Gulf Troops, First Year Findings. Publisher DAV, March 31, 1992. Morgan CA & Southwick SM: Biological alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Implications for Research and the U.S. Military. In: Pennington Center Nutrition Series: Countermeasures for Battlefield Stressors. Eds. Friedl, Lieberman, Ryan & Bray. Publisher, Pennington Center, 2000. pp 9-25. Lipschitz, Deborah S; Morgan, Charles A. 33; Southwick, Steven M. Neurobiological disturbances in youth with childhood trauma and in youth with conduct disorder. [Chapter] Greenwald, Ricky (Ed). (2002). Trauma andjuvenile delinquency: Theory, research, and interventions. (pp. 149-174). Binghamton, NY, US: Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press/The Haworth Press, Inc. xxv, 276pp Morgan III CA: From 'Let There Be Light' to 'Shades of Grey': The Construction of Authoritative Knowledge about Combat Fatigue (1945). In: "Signs of Life: Medicine & Cinema", Eds. Graeme Harper and Andrew Moor, 2005. Wallflower Press, London and New York. pp 130-152. CA Morgan III, SM Southwick, G Steffian: Symptoms of Dissociation in Healthy Military Populations: Why and How do War Fighters Differ in Responses to Intense Stress. In: Traumatic Dissociation: Neurobiology and Treatment. Eds. E. Vermetten, M. J. Dorahy, D. Speigel. Am Psych Publishing (APP), Washington/London 2007. pp 157-180. ISBN 978-158562-196-5. Current Teaching Responsibilities: Course Director, General Psychiatry, Yale University Physician Associate Program, Yale University School of Medicine. Course Director, Human Sexuality, Yale University Physician Associate Program, Yale University School of Medicine. Lecturer in course History of Gender and Science, Yale Undergraduate College and the Department of History of Medicine and Science, Yale University. Lecturer in Law & Scholarship Seminar, Forensic Psychiatry Program, Yale Department of Psychiatry Psychosocial Aspects of Medicine, 1st year Medical Student Course, Yale University School of Medicine. Previous Courses: Videotaped Psychiatric Interviewing for 3rd year Medical Students, Yale University School of Medicine. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Theory and Practice., Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Course, US Army European Medical Command, 2000, 2002, 2004. History of Medicine in Cinema Seminar, 1998, with Professor John Warner, History of Medicine. Supervisory Experience: Over the course of 20 years on the faculty of medicine at Yale, Dr. Morgan has supervised medical students, psychiatry residents, and psychology interns. In this capacity he has been responsible for ensuring that students and post doctoral trainees alike achieve the clinical goals that are set for them in their stage of training. As a supervisor to psychiatric residents and psychology interns, he reviewed their clinical cases on a weekly basis, actively assisted them in learning core clinical skills in assessment, diagnosis and treatment issues, and assessed their clinical performance for the departments of psychiatry and psychology. He has worked with psychiatry residents and psychology residents on an inpatient and outpatient basis in my roles as Medical Director of the inpatient PTSD unit at VA Connecticut and as Chief of the outpatient PTSD Anxiety program at VA Connecticut. In addition to his work at Yale, Dr. Morgan has supervised students in the masters program at the Joint Military Intelligence College, Bolling AFB, Washington, DC. Media: Dr. Morgan's work and research has been featured on CNN, ABC's 20/20, Discovery Channel (US and Canada) and on National Public Radio. In addition, his work has been cited in Popular Science, New Scientist, Wired Magazine and in The New Yorker magazine and the New York Times.