Promise of Justice Initiative, How the Pandemic Ravaged Louisana's Prisons, Jails, and Detention Centers, 2020
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2020 DECEMBE ICE I I IA I E F J MI E HE LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 H HE 2020 A DEMIC A AGED L I IA A I JAIL , A D DE E I CE E , THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS: AC KN O WLEDGEM EN TS EX EC UTIVE SUM M ARY IN TRO DUC TIO N 2 3 5 PART I: A S ERIES O F C RISES AT E VERY LE VEL O F IN C ARC ERATIO N THE BE G INNING OF THE VIRAL SPRE AD F E DE RAL F AC ILITIE S O A K D A L E F E D E R A L C O R R E C T IO N A L I N ST I T U T I O N I M M IG R A T I O N D E T E N T I O N C E N T E R S T H R O U G H O U T L O U I S IA N A STATE RU N F AC ILITIE S L O U I S IA N A S T A T E P E N IT E N T IA R Y L O U I SIA N A C O R R E C T IO N A L I N ST I T U T E F O R W O M E N O F F IC E O F J U V E N I LE J U S T IC E F A C ILI T IE S LOCA L FA CI LI TI ES O R L E A N S P A R ISH P R IS O N E A ST B A T O N R O U G E P A R ISH P R IS O N 7 7 9 9 13 14 17 24 26 30 30 32 PART II: IN AD EQ UATE AN D HARM FUL GO V ERN M EN T RESPO N SES INITIAL STATE WIDE RE SPONSE CAM P J R E V IE W P A N E L H E A L T H E Q U IT Y T A S K F O R C E M ISINF ORM ATION AND A LAC K OF TRANSPARE NC Y D E PL ORABL E C ONDITIO NS OF C ONF INE M E N T S O L I T A R Y C O N F IN E M E N T A N D L O C KD O W N S N O O R I N A D E Q U A T E M E D IC A L C A R E F O R C E D L A B O R I N D A N G E R O U S C O N D IT I O N S F AILURE TO USE RE L E ASE M E C HANISM S F AILURE TO C OND UC T M ASS TE STING 35 PART III: R EC O M M EN DATIO N S 51 53 54 56 58 C O N C LUSIO N APPEN DIX A: DE VELO PM EN TS IN ADDITIO N AL STATE F AC ILITIES APPEN DIX B: DE VELO PM EN TS IN ADDITIO N AL LO C AL F AC ILITIES EN DN O TES PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 35 35 37 39 41 43 44 44 46 47 49 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T hroughout the C O V ID - 19 pande mic, pe ople lo c ke d in pris o ns, jails, and detentio n c enters ac ross the state o f L ou is iana have bee n fighting fo r the ir lives . T he y and the ir lo ved o nes o n the outs ide hav e display ed a leve l of stre ngth, e ndu ranc e, and adv oc acy that is u nmatc he d. S ince the early days o f the pande mic in M arc h 20 20, inc arcerated peo ple and the ir lo ve d ones ac ross the state have re ache d o ut to ou r office to tell the ir s to ries about how C O V ID -19 began to c ree p into the ir liv ing spaces and upend the ir daily lives . U nlike those o f us on the ou ts ide, who are able to make c ho ices to s oc ial distanc e, c o ntro l ou r su rro undings , and maintain c le aning and sanitiz ing practices, those ins ide are u nable to e ngage in these bas ic s afe ty me asu res to ke ep the mse lves he althy. S taff C o ntributo rs: M e rce des M o ntagnes J amila J o hns o n R ebecc a R amas wamy N is hi Ku mar E ddie Ke ith M ic hael C aho on Katie H u nte r-L ow rey Be n C ohen A mbe r T ho rpe Z o e Re ie r ...and all the staff at PJ I and C A P for sharing ou r clie nts ’ sto ries Intern C o ntributors : M aya C haudhu ri J ac qu i O este rblad M e redith B oo ker E lio ra M intz S amantha O livero P artner C o ntribu to rs: P rofess o r A ndrea A rmstro ng R ev ere nd A le xis A nders o n D r. A njali N iy o gi T his re port is de dic ate d to all the incarc erate d pe o ple w ho bec ame infected w ith C O V ID -19 and the family me mbe rs of those who lost the ir liv es to C O V ID -19 w hile incarc erate d. THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 3 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY S inc e the C O V ID -19 pande mic began s wee ping ac ross the U nite d States in F ebru ary 20 20, mo st A meric ans have c hange d the ir lives , habits , and the way they inte ract with others in o rde r to kee p thems elves and o the rs s afe . These be hav ioral s hifts have bee n imposs ible in c arce ral fac ilities . A dministrators o f priso ns, jails , and de te ntio n ce nters across the c ou ntry have stru ggle d to e ffe ctiv ely respo nd to the s pre ad o f C O V ID -19. In L ou is iana, offic ials at fe de ral, state , and loc al fac ilities have respo nde d po o rly to the pande mic by failing to imple me nt mass testing and pre ve ntativ e me asu res , qu arantining pe ople in are as of pris o ns that had bee n pre v iously c los ed due to dec ay ing c o nditio ns, and failing to pro v ide adequate me dic al c are to those expe rie nc ing C O V ID -19 sy mpto ms. T his re po rt details how C O V ID -19 pro gress ed throu gh co rrec tio nal institutio ns ac ross the state and ho w gove rnment offic ials have failed to pro pe rly respo nd to the pandemic. L ou is iana’s O akdale F ede ral C o rrectional Institutio n w as o ne o f the firs t c arce ral fac ilities in the c ou ntry to reach c ris is lev el o nce the pande mic began and STATE FACILITIES Louisiana Department of Health • Guidance calling for depopulation mysteriously rescinded • Website reporting statewide numbers does not include people in prisons Camp J Plan • State implemented plan to transfer all COVID-19 patients to a previously shuttered, decrepit disciplinary unit at Louisiana State Penitentiary—over an hour from the nearest reference hospital Lack of Testing • DOC received 24,000 test kits between June and September and has only administered just over 7,000 tests to incarcerated persons as of early December (DOC has over 31,000 people within its immediate custody) Children • Office of Juvenile Justice cancelled all visitation and programming and limited family contact to phone calls, which the children had to pay for • Children were pepper sprayed, placed in solitary confinement, and locked in their dorms for up to 23 hours per day Review Panel for Furlough • Only 1,200 people, 4% of DOC population, eligible for panel review for furlough under narrow criteria • Panel disbanded in June with only 72 individuals having been released—0.2% of DOC population PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 4 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE w as the s ite of the first c o nfirme d C O V ID -19 de ath in a federal pris on. A t an IC E P rocess ing C enter, 7 9 w omen w ho as ke d fo r s o ap we re inste ad trappe d in a roo m and peppe r-s praye d. Wee ks afte r the pandemic hit L ou is iana, the L ou is iana D e partme nt o f H ealth (LD H ) issu ed its firs t gu idance regarding pris o ns, w hich c alle d fo r de popu latio n, amo ng othe r actio ns—but this gu idance w as mysteriously res cinde d w ithin ho urs . A s of e arly D ece mbe r, L ou is iana D e partme nt o f Pu blic S afety and C orrec tio ns (D O C ) w as re porting 2, 586 c o nfirmed C O V ID -19 c ases and 31 deaths in the state pris ons . A t loc al jails FEDERAL FACILITIES Oakdale Federal Correctional Institution • “Ground zero” of federal prison system • Site of first confirmed COVID-19 death in federal prison • Justice Department found that Oakdale “failed to comply with federal health guidance” Immigration Detention Centers • 79 women asked for soap and were pepper sprayed • 83 people pepper sprayed and left in room full of pepper spray after requesting to be released or deported to escape threat of COVID-19 • Employees initially forbidden from wearing masks and priso ns , lac k of re porting and transpare ncy has o bsc ured the rampant spre ad of the v irus as w ell as its death toll. P art I of this re port prov ides a time line of C O V ID - 19 ’s pro gress io n throu gh c o rrectio nal fac ilities throu ghou t L ou is iana. This sectio n co ntains first-hand acc ou nts from those inc arcerated and the ir love d o nes, c o mbine d w ith data o btaine d fro m gov ernme nt o ffic ials through L ou is iana P ublic Re co rds Law requests. P art II dis cusses how the go ve rnment ¾ inc lu ding the G o ve rno r, the Lo u isiana D e partme nt of H e alth, and the L ou is iana D e partme nt o f Pu blic S afety and C orrec tio ns ¾ prov ide d an inade qu ate and harmful res pons e to the pande mic, including by disse minating misinfo rmatio n, ho lding pe ople in deplo rable c o nditio ns o f c o nfine me nt, and failing to use re le ase mec hanis ms and to c o nduct mass testing. P art III prov ides LOCAL FACILITIES Inconsistency • Sheriffs’ responses varied dramatically Lack of Transparency • Only 6 out of 64 parishes responded to a data request from the State’s Health Equity Task Force PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 5 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE rec o mme ndatio ns to go ve rnment offic ials fo r c o ntro lling the c ontinu ed s pre ad o f C O V ID -19 and adequ ately respo nding to future public health c rises . INTRODUCTION A s C O V ID -19 began to spre ad thro ughout the U nited S tates in F ebru ary and M arc h 20 20, inc arcerated peo ple ac ross the c ou ntry , alo ng w ith the ir adv oc ates and lo ve d o nes, began to raise the alarm that the v irus c ould s o o n ov ertake c o rrectio nal fac ilities natio nw ide. T hat w o rry w as we ll-fou nded. Pris o ns and jails foster c o nditio ns fo r v iral s pre ad. N amely , s oc ial distanc ing is imposs ible in these fac ilities, health care— partic ularly emerge nc y c are—is ge nerally inadequate, and inc arcerated peo ple are more like ly to have u nde rly ing illnesses and c o -mo rbidities , w hic h make the m more like ly to dev elop se ve re s ympto ms if they c o ntract C O V ID -19 and requ ire me dic al interve ntio n. 1 A rece nt stu dy fou nd that pe o ple in jail and pris o ns are five and a half times mo re likely to be infe cte d w ith C O V ID -19 and three times mo re likely to die fro m the v irus than the ge ne ral po pu latio n. 2 O ne man inc arcerated in A ngola wrote to P JI o n M arch 21 to e xpress his fears about the v irus and its s pre ad: “M y co nditio n is g etting wo rs er b y the day, I only have fou r ye ars re maining until my re leas e , bu t I am afraid I may die here b ec ause the y have guards he re who have take n sic k on the job with corona s ympto ms and were take n ou t of he re in ambu lanc es. I be lie ve the virus is already he re ! Se ve ral inmates have b ec o me grave ly ill, bu t DO C is not te lling the me dia abou t this.” A cross the c o untry , the re has bee n a c ollective failure to take ste ps to re duc e the impact of C O V ID -19 on jail and pris o n po pu latio ns. T he respo nse in L ou is iana is no different. While the go vernme nt has a respo ns ibility to kee p ev ery o ne in the state safe, it has a spec ial duty to care fo r pe ople in its c ustody. D etaining peo ple du ring normal times, as w ell as du ring a glo bal pande mic , requ ires state and priso n o ffic ials to prote ct inc arce rated pe ople fro m c ruel and unusu al pu nis hme nt and to pre ve nt su bstantial risk of se rious harm. T he duty arises from the imme nse restrictio ns that inc arceratio n impos es o n pe ople ; w hile fre e pe ople c an make dec is io ns abou t w he ther PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 6 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE to expose the mselves to ris ks and take steps to protect the mse lves and affirmativ ely se ek he alth care , inc arce rated pe ople cannot. T his disparity is magnifie d du ring the pande mic , as inc arce rated pe ople have no c o ntro l o ver s oc ial distanc ing, acc ess to pers o nal protective e qu ipment (PPE ), o r s ee king o ut C O V ID -19 tes ts o r othe r me dic al c are. L ou is iana, w ith high rates o f incarc eration, an aging inmate po pu latio n, and diminis hed opportu nities fo r parole , assu mes the respo ns ibility o f pro v iding me dic al c are . E ve n be fore the pande mic, L ou is iana had the highest rate of pris oner deaths o f any state in the c ou ntry, 3 w hic h is u nsu rpris ing giv en that the state also s pent the least amo unt of mo ne y o n he alth care per pris o ner. 4 In L ou is iana, C O V ID -19 has dispropo rtio nate ly impacte d pe ople o f c o lo r, particu larly B lack pe ople—in A pril, it was repo rte d that rou ghly 7 0 perce nt o f the pe ople w ho had died of C O V ID -19 in L ou is iana we re Blac k, eve n thou gh B lac k pe ople make up only 3 2 pe rce nt o f the s tate’s po pu latio n. 5 T his disparity is ev en mo re pro no unce d in carc eral settings, w he re Blac k and brow n pe o ple are dispropo rtio nate ly repres ented. F u rthe r, the c o nflue nce of incarce ration and po o r he alth o utc o mes does no t hit all Lo u isianans e qually . W hile the re are pre -e xis ting racial disparities in both the c riminal le gal syste m and in public health indic ato rs, es pe cially for C O V ID -19 patients, L ou is iana has o ne o f the highest gaps fo r thes e disparities. 6 T he le gacy o f c hatte l s lave ry as well as c enturies of systemic rac ism are at play in dete rmining w ho is mo st impacte d by the pande mic in L o uis iana. Thus, an ineffective res po nse to the pande mic fu rthe r e ntre nc hes racial injustice. P art I of this re port prov ides a c hro nolo gy for how C O V ID -19 s pre ad throu ghout L ou is iana’s pris o ns, jails, and detentio n fac ilities and highlights e ffo rts to s te m the s pread throu gh legal action. Part II e xplains how the State of L ou is iana faile d to pro perly res po nd to C O V ID -19 and c ontinu es to inadequately address the o ngo ing public he alth cris is . L ast, Part III prov ides rec o mmendations fo r actio ns that s tate offic ials c an take to lesse n the already c atastro phic impact that C O V ID 19 has had o n c arceral fac ilities imme diately and fo r future o utbreaks . PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 7 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE PART I: A SERIES OF CRISES AT EVERY LEVEL OF INCARCERATION THE BEGINNING OF THE VIRAL SPREAD T aking into acc ou nt the prepande mic c onditions , it w as c le ar to pe o ple w ho are inc arcerated, the ir family and frie nds, and othe r adv oc ates that Lo u isiana pris o ns and jails w ou ld prese nt an u nc o ntro llable c ris is o nce e ve n a s ingle c ase o f the v irus re ac he d the m. F ro m the beginning, the v irus s pread like w ildfire throu gh these fac ilities, w he re ade quate s o cial distanc ing w as, fo r the most part, imposs ible , and staff me mbers we re c o ming in and o ut from the c o mmunity. O ne o f the first jail- relate d c ases was a me dic al staffer at the O rle ans P arish P riso n, w ho w as c o nfirme d pos itive for C O V ID -19 arou nd M arc h 21. 7 A llen, Je ffe rs o n, L afayette, and O rleans P aris h Pris o ns all had c o nfirme d c ases amo ng detained peo ple by M arc h 24. 8 T wo state pris on e mployee s, including one maintenance staff me mber fro m Lo uis iana S tate P enitentiary (L SP), w ere c o nfirme d to hav e teste d pos itive o n M arc h 26. 9 T hree c hildre n in the cus to dy of the O ffic e of Ju ve nile Justic e (O JJ) had tested pos itiv e by M arc h 27 . 10 A ls o o n M arc h 27 , the w arde n o f Ray mo nd Laborde C o rrectional C enter tes te d pos itive. 11 T he first pos itiv e test resu lt o f a pers o n inc arce rate d in a D e partme nt of C orre ctio ns -ru n state pris on occ urre d o n M arch 28 at Rayburn C o rrectio nal C enter. 12 Tw o pe ople de taine d in the E ast Bato n R ou ge P aris h P ris on tes te d pos itive afte r PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 8 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE MARCH 24 MARCH 27 MARCH 29 APRIL 10 Reported cases in Allen, Jefferson, Lafayette, and Orleans Parish Prisons 3 children in OJJ custody test positive 2 incarcerated people at EBRPP test positive after being transported to the hospital DOC confirms cases on COVID19 at two prisons and among staff at 4 other prisons I I MARCH 21 MARCH 26 MARCH 28 APRIL 1 APRIL 20 First COVID-19 case in a correctional facility (Orleans) 2 LSP employees test positive First COVID-19 positive case in a state prison (Rayburn) DOC confirms cases of COVID-19 at two prisons and among staff at 4 other prisons First COVID-19 death of an incarcerated person at LSP. Warden & Medical Dir. of Raymond Laborde Corr. Center die from COVID-19 Figure 1: Timeline of Initial Spread of COVID-19 in Louisiana Correctional Facilities trans port to a loc al e me rge ncy ro o m o n M arch 28 and 29. 13 By A pril 1, the D O C had c o nfirmed c ases amo ng inc arcerated pe ople at tw o s tate pris o ns, in addition to s taff w orking at those and fou r o ther state pris o ns. 14 T hat s ame day, an inc arcerated pers o n re po rted that pe o ple at D ixo n C o rrectional Institute , o ne o f the pris o ns w ith c onfirme d c ases, we re “dropping like flies .” Inc arce rate d pe ople , lo ve d o nes, and adv oc ates qu ic kly c alle d fo r the state to take actio n. O n M arc h 16, a grou p o f o rganiz ations that adv oc ate for the rights of indiv idu als detained and impris o ne d in L ou is iana se nt a lette r to G o ve rno r E dw ards u rging him “to imme diately dev elop e v idence- base d and proactive plans fo r the pre ve ntion and manage me nt of C O V ID -19 in the D e partme nt of C orre ctio ns [and in] L ou is iana’s jails and ju ve nile fac ilities.”15 O n A pril 8, when the re was a c o nfirme d pos itive c ase at almost ev ery pris o n in the state , and o ve r 18, 0 0 0 cases in the ove rall state po pulation, a grou p o f ov er fifty faith le ade rs c alle d o n G o ve rno r E dw ards to act quic kly in advanc e of E aste r S u nday. 16 D e aths be gan s oo n thereafte r. A L ou is iana State Pe nite ntiary e mploye e die d o n G o o d F riday, A pril 10 . 17 O n A pril 20 , the first inc arcerated v ic tim of C O V ID - 19 w as a 69 -ye ar- old man at LS P w ho w as re ported to hav e u nde rly ing health co nditio ns . 18 By the n, both the warden and the medical directo r of R ay mo nd L abo rde C orrec tio nal C enter had die d o f C O V ID -19. 19 A s news o f these pos itive c ases and the de aths fo llow ing s oo n the re after e me rged, detaine d and inc arce rate d pe o ple v o ice d inc reas ing co nc erns about the lac k of an appropriate res pons e PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 9 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE plan. In the O rle ans P arish P ris on, pe o ple w ith u nde rly ing me dic al c onditions s po ke out to e xpress c o nce rns w ith the lac k o f available informatio n and the qu ic kly grow ing nu mber of pe ople with sy mptoms . 20 A t this po int, state and loc al go ve rnments c ou ld have, and s ho uld have , ac te d qu ic kly to c o ntain the v irus in co rrectio nal settings and prote ct the he alth o f incarc erate d pe o ple and c o mmu nities throu ghou t the state . B ut the gove rnment failed to act des pite the pleas of many c o mmu nity me mbers to do s o. FEDERAL FACILITIES T he larges t jailer in the c ou ntry is the federal go ve rnme nt. The D e partme nt of Justic e ov ers ees the Bu re au o f Pris o ns (B O P), w hic h he ld ove r 163 , 0 00 pe ople at the be ginning o f the pande mic. 21 T hat does not include the nu mbe r o f pe ople in pre trial fe de ral de te ntio n, Immigration and C usto m’s E nfo rce ment (IC E ) dete ntion fac ilities, or in U .S. M ars hals S erv ice c ustody . 22 Yet the federal go vernme nt’s res pons e to the s pread o f co ronavirus in i According to the Bureau of Prisons website as of October 13, 2020, FCI Pollock, USP Pollock, FCI Oakdale I, and FCI Oakdale II, which are located in these fac ilities has bee n abysmal. A M ars hall P ro ject inves tigatio n fou nd that BO P staff igno re d sy mpto ms of C O V ID -19 , did not s eparate s ic k and healthy pe ople , c o ntinue d to transpo rt pe o ple betwe en fac ilities throu gh e arly M arch, c o ntinue d to w ork afte r e xposu re to co nfirme d cas es of the c oro nav irus, did not follow the so c ial distanc ing plan, limite d testing to c once al the e xte nt o f the s pread, and mo ve d sic k pe ople into u nc o nstitu tio nal c onditions of c o nfine me nt. 23 Be cause o f the e arly and rapid rate of infe ctio n in L ou is iana, the fou r fe deral fac ilities in L ou is iana, w hic h hous e appro ximately 4, 3 0 0 inc arcerated indiv idu als , qu ic kly bec ame the first ho tbe ds o f c o ro nav irus and like ly incre ase d c o mmu nity spre ad ac ross the regio n. i Oakdale Federal Correctional Institution O ne of the first c arce ral fac ilities in the U nite d States to re ac h a cris is le vel w as O akdale F ederal C o rre ctional Institutio n (O akdale) in O akdale , L ou is iana. Louisiana, had a total population of 4,291. https://www.bop.gov/about/statistics/population_ statistics.jsp. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 10 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 24 T he BO P did not respo nd to staff re quests to s uspend priso n labo r, prov ide spec ialize d me dic al te ams, and pro vide appro priate prote ctiv e ge ar. 25 A nd des pite c onfirme d pos itiv e c ases , s taff we re expec te d to c o ntinue to w o rk s o lo ng as they did not e xhibit s y mpto ms. 26 A s e arly as M arc h 18, staff we re requesting to re du ce pote ntial c ross- co ntaminatio n and to not mo ve betwe en the tw o different c o rrectio nal fac ilities c omprising O akdale, a request the warden de nied. 27 O n M arc h 25 , s ix inc arcerated me n w ere hos pitalize d for C O V ID -19 , and the next day, thre e staff me mbers tes te d po sitive for the v irus . 28 That same day, O akdale establis he d mandatory te mpe ratu re chec ks for Justice Department’s inspector general later reported, after a remote inspection of Oakdale, that the facility had “failed to comply with federal health guidance and left inmates with the virus in their housing units for a week without being isolated.” ii For more on Mr. Jones and his plans for the future, see Maurice Chammah, Coronavirus Ended His Shot at a Second Chance, MARSHALL PROJECT inc arcerated me n. 29 Just tw o days later, o n M arc h 28, P atric k J o nes was the firs t c o nfirme d and re porte d C O V ID -19 de ath fo r s o me o ne in fe de ral custo dy. ii A lthou gh BO P repo rte d after his de ath that M r. Jo nes had asthma, his mothe r and close frie nds disagree d, stating M r. J o nes did not have asthma o r any othe r pre-e xisting c o nditio ns. 30 A rou nd the s ame time pe riod, a gu ard at O akdale w as admitte d to intens ive care , thirty pe o ple w ho w ere inc arcerated at the fac ility teste d pos itiv e fo r c o ro nav irus , and at least s ixty pe ople and an u nknow n nu mbe r o f staff at O akdale we re in qu arantine. 31 By M arch 29 , se ve n staff me mbe rs had c o nfirmed c ases , and from the re “it just hit the acce le rato r, and it we nt fast.”32 T he first de ath o n M arch 28 w as qu ic kly fo llowe d by a se co nd o n A pril 1, and tw o mo re de aths o n A pril 2. 33 BO P offic ials did not put the pris o n o n loc kdow n u ntil tw o wee ks afte r the c risis began, tho ugh staff c o ntinue d to e nte r and e xit the pris o n w ith o nly sy mpto m sc re ening, 34 wo rking thirty or fo rty ho urs straight. 35 By that (Apr. 3, 2020), https://www.themarshallproject.org/2020/04/03/c oronavirus-ended-his-shot-at-a-second-chance. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 11 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE time , O akdale had bec o me “grou nd ze ro fo r co ro navirus in the fe de ral priso n syste m.”36 A s the de ath nu mbe rs climbed, O akdale te mpo rarily sus pe nded C O V ID tes ting of inc arcerated pers o ns ; me anw hile , staff were dange ro usly o ve rw orke d, w ith s o me nu rses w orking fo rty -hou r s hifts . 37 M e n co ntinue d to be ho use d in cells of s ix, w ith many of thos e w ho w ere s ic k no t re move d fro m the ge ne ral po pu latio n. T hey repo rte d he aring the infected me n c ou ghing throu ghou t the nights. 38 T he Jus tice D e partme nt’s ins pec to r ge ne ral late r re porte d, afte r a re mote inspe ction of O akdale , that the fac ility had “faile d to co mply w ith fe de ral he alth guidance and le ft inmates with the v irus in the ir hous ing u nits fo r a wee k w ithout being is olate d.”39 is olatio n ce ll to die ; pe ople s kippe d wo rk, inclu ding details inv olving cle aning and s anitiz ing, ou t of fe ar of c o ntamination; and s oc ial distanc ing w as imposs ible. 41 T he lac k of info rmatio n cause d c o nfusio n, resulting in a “scu ffle ” w he n pe o ple assigne d to ge ne ral population objected to the return o f pe ople who had bee n in qu arantine be cause it had not bee n c o nfirme d by me dic al pe rs o nne l that there w as no lo nge r a ris k of infe ctio n. 42 Staff w ho misse d mo re than three wo rkdays w ithout a do ctor’s note we re referre d to a dis c iplinary board that routinely doc ke d the ir pay. 43 By A pril 3, fiv e inc arce rated pers o ns had died of c o ro nav irus. 44 In the me antime, staff w ith a te mpe rature of 9 9 de gre es w ere c le ared to co me into the fac ility to w ork. 45 T hou gh the c ity of O akdale only has one s mall hos pital, the BO P did not reac h out to lo cal o r state go ve rnme nt offic ials to c o ordinate a res po nse, w hic h left politic ians and c o mmu nity me mbers c o nce rne d that the pris o n c ou ld lead to c o mmu nity s pre ad. 40 T he inadequate respo nse from the BO P w re ake d hav oc within O akdale . Pe ople did not repo rt the ir sy mpto ms o ut of fe ar of be ing put in an A fte r the death of fiv e inc arcerated pers o ns, the A C L U o f L ou is iana file d a petitio n for w rit o f habe as c orpus , as w ell as inju nc tive and dec larativ e relie f, on behalf of all inc arcerated peo ple at O akdale in L ivas v. M ye rs. 46 A nothe r pers o n had died by the time the A C LU filed an e me rge ncy mo tio n for rele ase of vu lnerable and low- ris k pe ople o n A pril 13. 47 Tw o days late r, the s eve nth PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 12 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE inc arcerated pers o n at O akdale died. 48 F ollow ing a visit to O akdale o n A pril 17 w ith the C D C and L ou is iana O ffice o f P ublic H ealth, a BO P s po kespe rs on c o mme nded the fac ility for the ir c o mpliance w ith C D C gu idelines. A ro und this s ame time, O akdale w as us ing an 18-w he ele r as a mo bile mo rgue . 49 W hile the A C LU re ques te d the rele ase of mo re than 7 00 inc arcerated me n w ho me t the c rite ria fo r early rele ase or ho me c o nfine me nt set out by the BO P, the BO P agree d o nly to revie w 10 0 indiv idu als unde r these gu idelines, and ide ntifie d o nly 58 fo r pote ntial re le ase. 50 T hou gh A tto rney G e ne ral Barr had iss ue d a me mo randu m e nc ou raging the rele ase o f pe ople in the custody of BO P, the process fo r releas e had actu ally slowe d dow n at O akdale after the o nse t of the pande mic. 51 W arde n M yers did no t res po nd to any requests fo r c o mpass io nate releas e betw ee n M arc h and M ay. 52 E v en thos e luc ky pe rs o ns des ignate d and c o nfirme d fo r re leas e w ere not s afe . F or example , o nly days befo re he e nte re d a mandato ry qu arantine to prec ede his rele ase to ho me c onfinement, G eo rge E sc amilla was take n to a loc al ho spital fo r res piratory failure and teste d pos itiv e fo r C O V ID -19 . 53 M r. E sc amilla was in the hos pital for tw o wee ks befo re his family was e ve n no tifie d. T hey immediate ly we nt to the hospital w he re they w atc he d throu gh a w indow as M r. E s camilla pass ed away. 54 M r. E s camilla w as s chedule d to be rele ase d tw o days be fo re he died. 55 S oo n afte r L ivas v. M yers w as file d, the BO P c hange d the ir policy s o that pe o ple w ho had serve d half of the ir se nte nce co uld be c ons ide re d fo r early rele ase . 56 It w as ultimately the pris o n e mploye e u nion that fo rc ed a PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 13 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE c hange in leade rship at O akdale. T he u nio n file d c o mplaints w ith the O ccu patio nal S afety and H e alth A dministratio n in late M ay , alleging that Warde n Ro dney M ye rs faile d to notify the m or prov ide the m w ith P PE afte r pe ople inc arce rate d at O akdale began testing pos itive fo r c o ro nav irus. 57 W arden M ye rs w as te mpo rarily reass igne d to a c entral regio nal office w ithin a we e k of the c omplaints, and o n M ay 22, M yers w as re move d fro m his pos itio n by the BO P. 58 A rou nd the s ame time, the BO P repo rte d that tes ting w ou ld be o ffered to eve ry o ne in O akdale o n a vo lu ntary bas is . 59 T he BO P had also begun to pro v ide e mploye es w ith appropriate PP E and post info rmatio n about s oc ial distanc ing and goo d hy giene prac tices throu gho ut O akdale, but it w as to o little, to o late: te n pe o ple inc arcerated at O akdale had alre ady died. 60 Immigration Detention Centers Throughout Louisiana U nlike those in jails or pris o ns, the majo rity o f the pe ople c o nfine d in Immigratio n and C ustoms E nfo rce me nt (IC E ) c ustody are sus pe cte d of c o mmitting c ivil v io latio ns o f At o n e po i nt , 79 w o m e n a s k ed f o r so a p a nd w er e in st ea d t r a p p ed in a r o o m a nd pe pp er - s pr a y ed . immigratio n law and hav e no c riminal rec ord, y et the y are held in jail- like facilities des pite the ir lack of any c riminal c o nv ictio n o r c harge. W hile o the r agenc ies be gan to respo nd, albeit slow ly and inade qu ate ly, to the C O V ID -19 pande mic, IC E did nothing. 61 T he re are appro ximately a do z en fac ilities in Lo u isiana in w hic h IC E detains no nc itize ns. 62 F ro m F e bruary to O ctober of 20 20 , IC E repo rte d that nearly 9 38 detained immigrants in L ou is iana had teste d pos itive fo r C O V ID -19 , with c ases repo rte d at each of the 13 de te ntio n fac ilities. A t le ast o ne detained pers o n had died. In the first few w ee ks o f the pande mic, s oc ial distanc ing w as imposs ible at So uth Lo uis iana IC E P ro cess ing C e nte r, and no atte mpts we re made to prov ide detained peo ple w ith cleaning su pplies o r PP E . 63 A t o ne po int, 7 9 w o me n as ke d for so ap and we re ins te ad trapped in a ro o m and pe ppe r-s praye d. 64 P eppe r PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 14 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE s pray is po te ntially haz ardous. It c an cause bu rning in the thro at, w hee z ing, dry c ough, s hortness o f bre ath, gagging, gasping, and the inability to bre athe o r s pe ak. Pe ppe r spray irritates the we t, mucus -line d parts of the bo dy , inc luding the lungs, the main o rgans alre ady unde r attac k by C O V ID -19 . Pe ppe r s pray ing a pe rso n who has C O V ID -19 c ou ld inhibit the pers o n’s ability to breathe , po te ntially killing the m. M o re o ver, s o me of the possible c o nse que nc es of peppe r s pray ing, inc lu ding co ugh and s ho rtness of bre ath, mirro r the sy mpto ms of C O V ID -19 94 and c ou ld po tentially mas k pos itiv e c ases . L aSalle S ou thw est C orrec tio ns, a private pris o n c ompany, holds a nu mber of c o ntrac ts in o rde r to de tain no nc itize ns, loc al pre trial detainees , and state pris o ners . 65 In A pril, at L as alleru n C ataho ula C o rrectio nal C enter, a nu mbe r o f pe ople who had exhauste d the ir le gal o ptio ns re ques te d to spe ak to IC E about re le ase, inclu ding requests to be depo rte d s o that they might esc ape pote ntial de ath in IC E dete ntion from C O V ID -19 . 66 In respo nse , gu ards de ploye d pe pper spray o n 8 3 pe ople and left the m in the c o ntained ro o m full of peppe r s pray . 67 G uards als o threw s o me pe ople into the air or dragge d the m across the floo r, leav ing “bloo d ev ery where .”68 T he pe ople de taine d at C atahou la we re c o nce rne d by the lac k of masks , no av ailable dis infectant, and no c o mmunicatio n fro m IC E . 69 In additio n, L aSalle fo rbade e mploye es fro m w earing mas ks at the be ginning o f the pande mic. 70 A t one of its fac ilities, R ichwo o d C o rrectio nal C enter, pe o ple quic kly began s ho w ing s ympto ms o f C O V ID -19 befo re the facility ev en began to res pond. 71 R aú l Lu na G o nzále z be gan e xhibiting C O V ID -19 sy mpto ms but w as no t teste d until his s to ry aire d o n T ele mu ndo, des pite his history of c ance r, depe nde ncy o n a co los to my bag, and the de ath of tw o fac ility staff due to C O V ID -19 . 72 Lu na we nt bac k and fo rth betw ee n the hos pital and do rms full o f infe cte d pe o ple , like ning the dorms to a “N az i c o nce ntratio n c amp.”73 STATE RUN FACILITIES A s the pande mic began to impac t c arce ral fac ilities ac ross the c ou ntry, the state o f L ou is iana initially faile d to PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 15 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE prov ide a plan fo r res po nding to C O V ID -19 des pite adv oc ates ’ u rgent calls. T he n in A pril, we e ks after the o nset of the pande mic in the s tate, the L ou is iana D e partme nt o f H ealth (LD H ) issu ed its firs t gu idance regarding pris o ns, w hich c alle d fo r de popu latio n, amo ng othe r actio ns—this gu idanc e w as mysteriously res cinde d w ithin ho urs . 74 The LD H has s ince s hirke d its duties as the state ’s to p he alth age ncy , le av ing me dic al de c is io ns so lely in the hands of u npre pared D O C o ffic ials. N otably, the H ealth D e partme nt we bs ite repo rting state -w ide, parish-by- paris h data o n C O V ID -19 testing and infe ctio ns does no t appe ar to include any data from pris o ns. iii T his inac curate acc ou nting makes it diffic ult to ide ntify w hethe r any c o mmunity s pread has occ urre d fro m the cases in pris o ns, and u nde r-c o unts the o ve rall c ases in L ou is iana. S ec retary LeB lanc of the D O C c laime d that the state was c urbing the s pread w ith me asu res like canc eling the ro de o at the L ou is iana State P enitentiary and sto pping public tou rs. 75 iii 22125951702, the Health Department reports zero testing and zero positive cases from February 27, 2020, to November 19, 2020 (the latest date listed as of December 8). LA. DEP’T OF HEALTH (last visited Dec. 8, 2020), https://ldh.la.gov/Coronavirus/. Data downloaded from the Louisiana Health Department website, titled “Cases and Testing Data by Census Tract by Week” does not include testing and cases that are known to be in prisons. For example, in West Feliciana Parish, where LSP/Angola accounts for census tract no. D es pite a c o nce rning lev el o f o ve rc row ding eve n be fore the pande mic, L ou is iana w as c le arly be hind othe r s tates in creating an actu al respo nse plan. 76 T he y belate dly be gan to make plans that range d fro m cruel and pu nitive c o nditio ns to pro mis ing dev elopme nts . U nfo rtunate ly, the mos t pro mis ing plan, a R ev ie w P anel to s trate gic ally rele ase pe ople fro m inc arceratio n to mitigate the ris k o f v iral s pread in state priso ns and paris h jails, was the o ne that s tate offic ials s pe nt the leas t e ffort o n. Bec aus e of these failures , fro m M arc h thro ugh the beginning o f D e ce mber, 2, 58 6 inc arcerated peo ple and 59 9 D O C e mploy ees w ere infe cte d w ith C O V ID - 19, and 31 inc arcerated peo ple and 5 staff had die d. 77 W he n the nu mbe r of c o nfirmed c ases in D O C fac ilities e xce eded 2, 0 0 0 in Se pte mber, P JI note d that the rate of pos itive C O V ID - 19 c ases was 247 perce nt higher for D O C staff PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 16 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE than it was fo r the rest o f the state . The D O C pris o n s taff rate o f death fro m C O V ID -19 w as 20 perce nt higher than the s tate’s o ve rall de ath C O V ID -19 de ath rate. M o rriso n, D O C me dic al direc to r, annou nce d his departu re in A pril after only a ye ar of e mploy me nt w ith the de partme nt. 78 D r. R andy L avespere, the me dic al dire ctor o f A ngola, w as made inte rim dire ctor, des pite pre v io usly hav ing had his me dic al lic ens e sus pe nded and spe nding time in pris o n fo r “pu rc has ing $ 8, 0 0 0 w o rth of c rystal meth fro m an informant at a H o me D epot parking lot.”79 In additio n to failing to create an ade qu ate plan to res pond to the pandemic, le aders hip at D O C w as inc o ns iste nt. L eade rs hip c hanges du ring a disaster are alw ays c once rning, but in both o f thes e s cenarios , ess ential pers o nnel we re replace d w ith s ignific antly lessqu alifie d candidates. D r. J ohn E . 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 - 500 0 March April May June July Incarcerated Infections August September October Staff Infections Figure 2: Monthly COVID-19 infections in DOC facilities (data from end of each month) PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 November 17 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 March April May June July Incarcerated Deaths August September October November Staff Deaths Figure 3: Monthly COVID-19 deaths in DOC facilities (data from end of each month) Louisiana State Penitentiary A t the L ou is iana State P enitentiary (L SP), co mmo nly referre d to as A ngola, inc arcerated peo ple faced inc reas ed ris k of infectio n (1) bec ause of the State ’s plan to trans fer anyo ne w ho teste d pos itive across L ou is iana to iv In 2015, PJI filed suit on behalf of the over 6,000 incarcerated men at LSP to challenge the constitutionally inadequate medical care provided there. Although a federal judge indicated that prepandemic medical care at LSP was unconstitutional, no opinion has yet been entered C amp J , a close d down disc iplinary fac ility at LS P, and (2) be cause o f the ongo ing abysmal and unc ons titutional me dic al c are pre ce ding the pande mic c ompared to othe r pris o ns. iv Pe o ple incarce rate d at L SP repo rte d dire co nditions in do rms that ho ld ove r 8 0 pe ople in c lose qu arte rs. In the first few we e ks of M arc h, o ne in the case. https://promiseofjustice.org/2020/03/31/pji-filesfor-temporary-restraining-order-to-preventtransfer-of-sick-people-to-notorious-angolaprison/ PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 18 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE inc arcerated man at A ngola w rote to P JI s ay ing, “we are be ing told to ‘s o cially distance ’ o u rselves bu t are pac ke d into these do rmitories like s ardines.” T he inev itable first co nfirme d c ase at LS P c ame on M arc h 28. 80 A s mo re peo ple bec ame sic k in the follo wing days, pris on staff c laime d it w as the flu and refused to test the many pe o ple w ho w ere v is ibly ill. When the re we re no atte mpts at mitigation me asu res o r s oc ial dis tanc ing, pe ople re ported buy ing fo od fro m the c o mmissary to av o id go ing to the cafete ria, which c aus ed the c ommiss ary to run o ut of foo d. E arly o n, LS P w as not equ ippe d w ith dis infe ctant w ipes o r v entilators. F acility o ffic ials c o ntinue d to require the men to w o rk in the fie lds w ith no s oc ial distanc ing prac tices o r o the r s afe ty me asu res . There w as an o ve rall lac k of prev entative me asu res be ing take n by staff and w ithin the fac ility , causing o ne man to des cribe all o f the me n at A ngola as “sitting du c ks” fo r the v irus . W he n there w ere pos itive test results, do rms at arou nd 17 0 perce nt c apac ity we re put o n loc kdow n, making s oc ial distanc ing imposs ible and almost ens uring that entire do rms were e xpos ed to C O V ID - 19. A man inc arc erate d at A ngo la w ro te to PJ I abou t w hat he expe rie nce d du ring these loc kdow ns in a letter: “A fe w wee ks p ass ed b efore we we re all loc ke d do wn in qu arantine and our move ments g re atly res tricted. It was s everal we e ks late r fro m the start b efo re the DO C gave us mas ks to wear and starte d chec king our te mp e rature twic e a day. A ll du ring this time various inmates fro m o ther dorms came do wn with the virus . S imultaneous ly s everal s ecu rity guards c ontracted the virus e ls ewhere and introduc e d it to the inmate p opu lation at C amp F . […] M e anwhile, we are made to suffer. P ers onally, I am afraid my musc les may never re cover fro m inactivity. I’m g etting be d s ores in a c ertain sp ot from sitting up re ading for lack of anything e ls e to do . The no is e in my dorm is so me times de afe ning and I’m forc ed to we ar earp lugs or g o craz y. We have no ide a ho w long we will be locke d up in is olatio n “W e ar e b ei ng t o l d t o ‘s o ci al l y di s t a nc e ’ o u r s el v es bu t ar e p ac ke d i nt o t h es e do r mi t o r i es l i k e s ar d i n es . ” PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 19 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE o r have to suffer the indignity of not g etting paid anything and b e ing co nside red a s lave.” P ris on guards re po rtedly to ld inc arcerated peo ple that they we re orde ring plenty o f bo dy bags. A few wee ks late r, pris o n gu ards to ld a line o f pe o ple that the pris on had a ro om full of bo dy bags stac ked flo o r to c eiling. S o me c ou ld see the c o nstruc tio n o f a tent outs ide and ru mo rs sw irle d that it was to hold all the de ad bo dies. U nsu rpris ingly, incarc erate d pe ople re ac he d ou t to the ir lo ve d ones to have wills made and prov ide info rmatio n abo ut ho w the y w ante d the ir affairs handle d if they w ere to die fro m C O V ID -19 . 81 O ne pe rso n w ho w as forme rly on de ath ro w told P JI that he felt as thou gh his “death se nte nc e has bee n re ins tated” as he watched pe ople aro und him fall ill, o ne by o ne. T he stress was v is ibly getting to staff. In o ne instance , ac co rding to pe o ple ins ide the fac ility , pris o n gu ards res ponde d to pe ople with se vere me ntal illnesses by peppe r s pray ing the m multiple times a day to PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 20 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE sto p the sc re aming. A dditio nally, pe o ple w ould be rele ase d to the rec re atio n y ard o nly to find that qu arantine d do rms with pe ople rec ently e xpose d to c o ronav irus we re als o o n the y ard. Staff repo rte dly pu nished peo ple w ho trie d to pre ve nt expos ed pe ople fro m e ntering the ir dorms by se nding them to qu arantine. O ne man at L SP repo rte d that he was w ritte n up fo r holding a do o r close d to pre ve nt pe o ple fro m e ntering a qu arantined area. P r iso n g u a r d s r es po nd ed t o peo pl e w it h s ev er e m e nt a l il l ne ss e s b y p epp e r sp r a y in g t h em m u l t i pl e t i m e s a d a y t o st o p t h e sc r ea m in g . T he me dic al c are prov ide d to those with sy mpto ms indic ated that the pris o n w as in de nial abou t the spre ad and sev erity of C O V ID -19 . O ne pe rso n fe ll sic k arou nd M arc h 1, began to su bmit s ick c alls o n A pril 1, and repo rte d six medic al e me rge nc ies be twee n A pril 1 and A pril 23. E ac h time, medical staff to o k his blo o d pressure and te mperatu re , but they igno red his re po rts o f difficu lty bre athing and eating, and regular v o miting. H e did not e at fo r at le ast a we ek in A pril. H e lost te n to fiftee n pou nds in u nde r tw o mo nths. T his entire time , he remaine d in his do rmitory w ith no re gu lar care fro m me dic al staff and in close pro ximity to o ther peo ple. T hose arou nd him to ok c are o f him, bringing him E ns ure to kee p him fro m starving. H e bo ught V ic k’s vapor rub fro m the c o mmiss ary, and s o me o ne brou ght him A lka S eltze r and c old medic ine. H e e ve n trie d e ating garlic and s weating ou t the v irus. H e saw a doctor after repeate d adv oc acy from his s iste r, but the docto r o nly talke d to him and pe rfo rme d no physical examination. T hankfully , he re c ove re d fro m the v irus. T imes of despe ration de monstrate d the res ilie nc e and c ollec tive s olidarity o f pe ople inc arcerated at LS P. When the authorities failed to take me aningfu l steps , s o me peo ple inc arcerated at LS P du bbe d the mse lves the “C O V ID polic e.”82 T he y trie d to dis infect as many su rfac es as the y co uld, stretching out the ir me ager su pplies as muc h as poss ible. 83 Inc arce rate d pe ople began to o rganize jus t to make su re s o ap PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 21 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE w as av ailable fo r handw ashing: T he y distribu ted the so ap the y had, c o o rdinate d su pplies amo ng areas of the pris o n by buy ing, bartering, and trading, and ultimate ly put a bar o f s o ap by eve ry fauc et. O nce they had s oap, e ve ry one w as was hing the ir hands until they ran out. T he y o rganiz ed to make as many masks as the y c ou ld. T hey tu rne d the gy m into a mas k o peration, making mas ks ou t of fou r laye rs of c otto n. W hile pris o n offic ials had no regard fo r the lives o f those at L SP , those inc arce rate d the re figu red o ut w ays to try to slow the s pre ad w ithou t any su ppo rt fro m the adminis tratio n. L SP staff w ere limiting me dical c are and only testing those with se ve re s y mpto ms o f C O V ID -19, partic ularly high fe ve rs. 84 M o nths into the pande mic , LS P had 5, 50 0 c o ro nav irus tests av ailable bu t only tested a few hu ndre d pe o ple . 85 To date, L SP has still not engaged in mass tes ting des pite having thous ands o f tests available and a docu me nted plan for mass tes ting as e arly as mid-A pril. 86 H owe ve r, they did cho ose to c o nduct mo re than 1, 0 0 0 tests o f staff by late J une, resulting in a 19 pe rce nt pos itive rate . 87 N ot o nly did offic ials c ho ose to re main igno rant abou t the s pre ad o f the pandemic by not tes ting inc arce rate d me n, but they als o appe are d to be ratio ning medical c are. P eo ple w ere no t be ing taken to se e do ctors or nurs es bec aus e staff w ith no medical e xperie nce w ere sc re ening fo r me dic al interve ntio n. 88 In the first c ase that w ould end in de ath, Jo hn “C ap” C antrello kept c alling for help. Staff to o k his te mpe ratu re three times and, des pite his v is ible hy perve ntilating and s erious u nde rly ing me dical co nditions , he was no t take n to see a PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 22 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE do ctor bec ause his feve r re maine d unde r 10 0 degre es. 89 H e died days afte r be ing take n to O u r Lady o f the L ake H ospital. 90 T he ne xt man to die at LS P, L lo yd M eye rs, had trouble bre athing, e ating, and mo v ing, but w as refuse d me dic al c are bec ause his feve r w as not high e nou gh. 91 H e died w ithin a day of be ing mo ve d to a hospital. 92 F u rther, it is uncle ar that the sc re enings we re ev en taking ac cu rate te mperatu res ; s o me pe o ple repo rte d the y had re adings as low as 9 3 o r 94 de gre es, w hich, if ac curate, w ou ld mean they nee ded e me rge ncy treatme nt fo r hy po thermia. 93 While fe vers have be en identifie d as o ne o f the primary sy mpto ms of C O V ID -19 , a large propo rtio n o f C O V ID -19 patients re qu iring hos pitaliz atio n do not e xhibit feve rs o f 10 0 o r gre ate r de gre es, making these sc re enings ineffective. 94 Inc arce rate d pe ople w ho e xpress ed c o nce rn abou t thes e po lic ies expe rie nce d re taliato ry w rite -ups and place me nt in loc kdow n. A t least fou r o f the twe lv e pe ople who die d o f C O V ID -19 o r relate d c o mplicatio ns at L SP by the e nd of Ju ne were initially de nied me dic al care bec ause the ir sy mpto ms w ere not s eve re e nou gh by the pris on’s standards . 95 A P roPu blic a inves tigatio n fou nd that pe o ple repo rting c ou ghs , ac hes , fatigue , chest pains , and sto mac h pains, and pe o ple w ho pass ed o ut at the height o f the first wave in L SP , w ere no t tre ate d for C O V ID -19 . 96 The y we re told they w ere de hy drate d o r had gas. 97 S ic k me n w ere left in the ir dormito ries to rec ove r, patients we re retu rned to qu arantined are as, and s taff c o ntinue d to mo ve free ly amo ng different areas of the pris o n. 98 F o r those w ho had u nderly ing he alth iss ues, w hic h includes a dispropo rtio nate nu mbe r o f pe ople among inc arce rate d po pu latio ns, C O V ID -19 mo ve d qu ic kly and was often deadly. F o r example, Ro be rt T ass in Jr. w as hospitaliz ed o n M ay 6 afte r e xperie ncing res piratory distress. M r. T ass in already had late -stage thy ro id c ance r and c hro nic obstru ctiv e pulmo nary diseas e (C O PD ) and was in the proc ess of atte mpting to obtain me dic al re le ase to live his re maining days outs ide pris o n. U nfo rtu nately, o n M ay 11, the day befo re his s ixty-third birthday, he pass ed away after tes ting pos itive fo r C O V ID -19. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 23 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE M ic hael W illiams, a man inc arcerated at LS P, passe d away fro m C O V ID -19 o n M ay 9, 20 20 , at the age o f 7 0. W he n M ic hael and his s iste r Te rry talke d o n M ay 3 , s he c ould tell that he s ou nde d strange. T he ne xt night, a friend o f M ic hael’s c alle d Te rry to tell he r that he w as s ick. G ive n his sy mpto ms , M ic hael was put into is olatio n fo r mu ltiple days . Yet, w he n he w as o n the pho ne w ith his s o n Kev in, he to ld Kev in that he w as no t be ing tre ate d. Ke v in re me mbered his dad s ay ing, “S o n, I’m go ing to die in he re.” M ic hael’s family and lawye r, A llys o n B ille au d, c alled the fac ility re pe ate dly as king for M ic hael to be mov ed to the hos pital, but they we re told that he did not have C O V ID -19 . By the time that M ichae l w as trans ferre d to a hospital on M ay 7 , he was in c ritic al c o nditio n. H e tragic ally los t his life to the v irus tw o days late r. 99 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 April May June July Incarcerated Infections August September October Staff Infections Figure 4: COVID-19 Infections at Angola (data from end of each month) PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 November 24 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE W he n transfe rs amo ng fac ilities resu me d, the re we re challe nges figu ring ou t how to iso late pe ople ne wly arrive d at the pris o n. In late Ju ly , a pe rso n w ho arriv ed at LS P w as plac ed in an u nknow n dis ciplinary area—not C amp J—bec aus e he had a fe ve r. H e was told it w as bec ause he had C O V ID -19 , bu t he teste d negativ e. F or three days, he w as he ld in a s ingle c ell w ith he av y bars and grates o n the do or. T he grates ke pt o ut any bree ze fro m the hallway fan, making it “hot as hell.” H e w as not giv en a s hee t or a s ho we r. When he was taken to se e a docto r, he w as made to w alk in ankle s hac kles despite his pre-e xisting limp. H e w as the n take n to C amp J ev en thou gh he had not tes te d pos itive. Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women T he 1, 6 0 0 inc arce rated w o me n in L o uis iana C orre ctional v Louisiana has not had a dedicated women’s prison since the Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women (LCIW) flooded in 2016. Emma Discher, Louisiana Women’s Prison Finds Flood Recovery a Slow, Difficult Road, THE ADVOCATE (Feb. 3, 2017), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ crime_police/article_0c550bea-e8d7-11e6-91826fcb99933532.html; Lea Skene, After Louisiana Women’s Prison Flooded in 2016, Temporary Dorms Inundated with Coronavirus, THE ADVOCATE (June 7, Institute for W o me n (LC IW) are s plit be twee n loc al jails, trans itio nal pro grams, and tw o pris o n bu ildings re pu rpos ed fro m the ir prev ious roles ho us ing men and childre n—a bu ilding at the E lay n H unt C o rrectional C enter in St. G abrie l (LC IW-H unt) and the fo rme r Je tso n C e nte r for Y ou th in B ake r (LC IW- Bake r). v L o ng befo re the nove l co ronavirus bec ame a c o nce rn, the LC IW w arde n warne d that the “w o me n [we re ] lite rally liv ing o n to p o f o ne ano ther, ” e xce eding de nsity acc re ditatio n standards s et by the A me rican C orre ctio nal A ss oc iation. 100 D o rms held up to 8 0 w o me n e ac h w ith be ds two feet apart. 101 Lo u isiana’s first mass testing in an inc arce rate d setting was c o ndu cte d in e arly Ju ne at the tw o w omen’s pris o ns, re ve aling a w ides pre ad o utbreak. G loria Williams, affe ctionate ly know n as “M ama G lo” and L ou is iana’s longest- incarc erate d 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_ed45ea90-a696-11ea-a89d8b66acee5f8f.html; Grace Toohey, ‘Temporary Has Become Permanent’ for Displaced Inmates of Flooded Louisiana Women’s Prison, THE ADVOCATE (Apr. 20, 2019), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ crime_police/article_0fcebfb8-5d6b-11e9-bac5f7b4ee1d77f0.html. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 25 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE w o man, w as hos pitaliz ed w ith C O V ID -19 on A pril 18. 102 S he w as 7 3 at the time and had rec ently bee n re co mme nde d fo r c le me ncy by the state B o ard o f P ardo ns and P aro le. 103 T he n, on A pril 22, a w o man name d D orothy L aV era P ierre died at the age of 6 0 in O ur L ady of the L ake R egional M e dical C e nte r w hile s he was incarc erate d at H u nt. 104 D orothy w as the third inc arcerated pers o n to die of C O V ID -19 in Lo uis iana, 105 and s he had bee n s chedule d for a he aring w ith the Lo uis iana B o ard o f Pardo ns and P aro le o n M ay 18—less than a mo nth after he r de ath. 106 A t the time of he r de ath, 97 incarce rate d wo me n had tested pos itiv e fo r C O V ID 19 in Lo u isiana, inc lu ding 42 in a s ingle day—making LC IW the s ou rce of the most c onfirme d c ases of C O V ID - 19 in the L ou is iana D O C system, des pite its re lative ly s mall s ize . 107 M ore than half o f the w o me n w ho tes te d positive e xhibite d sy mpto ms. 108 A fte r the high- pro file hos pitaliz atio n and de ath at a s ingle fac ility in the c ou rse o f a we e k, and w ith pos itiv e tests s piraling out o f co ntrol, the D O C initiated mass tes ting at LC IW. In a press c o nfe re nce on M ay 5 , the D O C spo kes pe rs on repo rte d that 19 2 of the arou nd 19 5 Gloria “Mama Glo” Williams w o me n house d at H u nt had tes te d positive , as w ell as 41 staff o n the do rm. 109 A t the time , D O C ’s po licy o f o nly tes ting sy mpto matic pe ople had y ie lded only 299 pos itiv e tests amo ng inc arce rated pe ople state wide , 6 4% of the m amo ng w o me n. 110 O ffic ials firs t c o nducted mass tes ting in the fe male dorms at H u nt, finding 8 7 pe rce nt of abo ut 20 0 wo men we re infec te d. 111 T he n the y tes te d e ve ry one at Jets o n as we ll, w hic h re ve ale d that about 6 2 pe rc ent of almos t 30 0 w o me n w ere infe cte d. 112 M any o f the C O V ID -19 c ases c aptured by PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 26 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE the mass testing pro gram were asy mpto matic . 113 c le me ncy , s he is s till inc arcerated. Ins ide H unt and Jets o n, o ffic ials had wo men sle ep head-to- fo ot to try and “inc re ase the ir bre athing zo ne .”114 In early J une, T he A dvo cate re porte d that w o me n w ere be ing se parate d into s ic k and he althy “c o ho rts ” w ithin the do rms. 115 T he wo men’s fac ilities did not have the c apac ity for me dical is olatio n or individu al c ells . 116 F u rther, acc o rding to re ports fro m those inside , J ets on do es not have any o n-s ite me dic al fac ilities and had to transpo rt any inc arcerated w o man exhibiting sy mpto ms to anothe r lo catio n, inc reas ing the ris k of exposu re to othe rs and c o mmu nity s pre ad. A s o f e arly D ec embe r, the w omen at H unt we re repo rting that, as a result of a large outbreak of C O V ID - 19 amo ng the me n held at the fac ility, staff had bee n almost e ntirely ne gle cting the w o me n, including se rv ing fo o d hours late , for wee ks . In e arly M ay, a se co nd w o man died at H unt. S he was 47 ye ars o ld and w as se ntence d to tw enty ye ars for tw o c ou nts o f drug possess io n, e nhance d u nde r “habitu al offende r” laws . 118 N otably , w hile the me n w ho died of C O V ID -19 at L SP we re betw een the ages of 63 and 84, the w omen we re y ou nger—age d 6 0 and 47 . 119 A s of e arly D e ce mber, re po rtedly no ne of the 18 2 c ases o f C O V ID -19 amo ng w o me n at Jets o n has e nde d in de ath. 120 M e anw hile, M ama G lo, who had bee n plac ed on a respirator in inte ns ive c are, w as trans fe rre d back into H u nt on M ay 9 . 117 She w as plac ed bac k in a large, c row ded do rm with betwe en 7 0 and 8 0 othe r wo men. D es pite be ing re c ommende d for Office of Juvenile Justice Facilities … o nl y 3 0 c hil d r e n ha d b e en t e st ed f o r C O VI D - 1 9, a nd 2 8 o f t ho s e ha d t est e d po s i t i v e S inc e the beginning o f the pande mic, L ou is iana’s O ffice o f Ju ve nile Justice (O JJ) has had three diffe re nt directo rs. A s ste ady le aders hip thro ughout a c ris is is v ital to e nsu ring the c o nfide nce of the res pons e, these ro tating de puty se cretaries are a s ou rce o f c o nce rn. T he first de puty PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 27 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE se cretary w as J ames Bue che, w ho had w orke d w ithin the D O C fo r almost 17 ye ars . 121 O n M arc h 25 , the G ov ernor name d E dward D ustin (D usty) B ickham as the inte rim D e puty Sec retary afte r Bu ec he abruptly resigne d. 122 O n A u gus t 7 , the G o verno r annou nce d that W illiam (B ill) S o mme rs wo uld be taking ove r the pos ition on Septe mber 7 . 123 O J J vio pe rates four y outh dete ntio n ce nte rs, know n as se cu re- care fac ilities, which c ollec tive ly c onfine appro ximately 220 c hildren. O JJ o ffic ials co nfine d the appro ximately 220 c hildren to the ir dorms for 23 hou rs a day in respo nse to the pande mic. 124 T he y als o c ancelle d all v is itatio n and programming, including sc ho ol. 125 T he c hildren we re le ft o nly able to c o ntact the ir pare nts throu gh pho ne c alls, if they c ould afford to pay fo r the c all, and O JJ atte mpted to pro v ide o ne fiftee n- minute z o o m v ide o call a wee k. In desc ribing the impact this had o n he r s o n, o ne mo ther said, “he 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 April May June July August September Incarcerated Youth Infections October November Staff Infections Figure 5: Total Number of COVID-19 Cases Among Children as Reported by OJJvi vi Data was compiled by PJI using data from the OJJ website. OJJ COVID-19 Information, OFFICE OF JUVENILE JUSTICE, https://ojj.la.gov/ojj-covid-19information/ (last visited Dec. 8, 2020). PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 28 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE go t very de presse d and w ithdraw n fro m eve ry body. It’s frus trating to me ’c ause that’s no t how he w as.”126 “T h ey do n’ t ca r e. I t ’s n o t l i k e I ’ m a s t r an g er o r ju s t a f r i e n d wa nt i n g t o g et i n f o rm at i o n. I ’ m hi s mo t h er. ” O n M ay 14, 20 20 , the Pro mise o f Jus tice Initiative , Ju ve nile L aw C enter, the L aw O ffice of Jo hn A dc oc k, and the inte rnatio nal law firm O ’M elve ny & M ye rs file d a civ il rights su it in federal c ou rt o n behalf of the c hildre n, ranging in ages fro m 10 to 21, w ho w ere inc arcerated in O JJ ’s fou r secu re -c are fac ilities. 127 O n the day the lawsu it was filed, o nly 3 0 c hildre n had bee n tes te d fo r C O V ID - 19, and 28 of those had te ste d positive . 128 In addition, 41 s taff me mbers had tes te d positive , indicating that the true numbe r o f pos itive c ases amo ng the c hildre n w as like ly muc h highe r des pite a lac k of testing due to the high rate of staff infe ction. 129 O ne mo ther s aid “T he s taff are c o ming bac k and fo rth into the fac ility and my so n is sc are d of getting s ic k. I am w orrie d abo ut my so n’s s afety and w ellbe ing.”130 O n July 3, 20 20, the fe de ral judge re jec ted the c hildren’s request to fu rlou gh the m o r s afe ly re le ase them if they we re c los e to the end o f the ir se nte nce. 131 A lthou gh sc ho ol instructio n had resu me d o n Ju ne 6 , c hildre n’s pare nts and adv oc ates re mained c o nce rne d abou t a lack of testing and limite d c o mmunicatio n abo ut the ir child’s he alth or w ith the ir c hildre n dire ctly. 132 A fter not be ing told abou t he r s o n going to the hospital fo r a kidney issue and be ing qu arantined, o ne mothe r s aid, “I feel helpless. N o bo dy eve r has ans wers . Y our c hild is jus t anothe r nu mbe r. Y ou s it the re fo r days o n end, s ic k to y ou r sto mac h, not know ing. It’s a w aiting game. It’s a ho rrible, ho rrible fee ling. T hey do n’t care . It’s no t like I’m a stranger o r just a frie nd w anting to get information. I’m his mo ther.”133 A s o f D ece mbe r 8, 20 20, O JJ repo rts that 3 6 y ou th and 86 staff have tes ted pos itive for C O V ID -19 . 134 T he dispropo rtio nate nu mbe r o f staff tes ting pos itive c o mpare d to the y outh indic ates that O JJ is still no t imple me nting w idespre ad tes ting o f y ou th in the ir c are. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 29 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE F urther, the increas e in yo uthpos itive c ases betwee n A ugust and O cto be r w ere all attribu ted to the A cadiana C e nte r, indic ating that this may be the o nly fac ility c o nducting any kind o f testing. N o state priso n was le ft u ntou ched by the v irus. T hou gh we may ne ve r kno w the e xte nt o f the pain and s uffering pe ople e xperie nced in L ou is iana pris o ns du ring the pande mic, inc arcerated peo ple, adv o cates, and journalists we re able to e xpose s o me o f the e xpe rie nc es o f peo ple in state pris o n. F o r example, D ixo n C o rrec tio nal Institute , the only s tate pris o n w ith the capac ity for tre ating dialys is patie nts, had the ir firs t c o nfirme d pos itive c ases at the beginning o f A pril w ith thos e inside repo rting they we re “dro pping like flies.” A t leas t three o f the first pe o ple to ge t s ic k we re take n to the infirmary in w hee lc hairs , give n Ibuprofe n, and re tu rne d to the ir dorms w ithout being qu arantined or s oc ially distance d u ntil the next day. O ffic ials did no t start mass tes ting until late A ugust, at the s ame time the fac ility had its first death. 135 O f the 6 0 0 men tes te d, 3 31 teste d pos itiv e and 3 0 3 o f those we re asy mpto matic . 136 In S epte mbe r, 194 P eo pl e t est e d po s i t i v e o u t o f t h e 4 6 0 t est e d at Elayn Hunt C o r r ec t io na l C en t er D ixo n had 61 dialys is patients, w ho are at incre ase d ris k o f C O V ID -19 due to the ir kidney failure . The ir family me mbers , faith le aders , and me dical profess io nals we re pu blic ly and privately pushing state and fac ility o ffic ials to se nd these me n o n me dic al furlo ugh to a pro per me dic al fac ility fo r care o r to re le ase them. The state respo nde d by te mpo rarily mo v ing s ome of the dialys is patients to E lay n H unt C o rrectional C enter. A large C O V ID -19 o utbre ak was repo rte d among the me n inc arcerated at E layn H u nt C o rrectional C enter in N ov e mbe r 20 20. A s o f D e ce mber 3 , the re we re 81 c urre nt pos itiv e c ases and a total o f 194 pe ople had tes ted pos itive o ut of the 46 0 w ho had PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 30 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE bee n teste d. T he re we re tw o repo rte d C O V ID - 19 de aths at the fac ility. It was als o re ported that the outbreak had affec te d the fac ility’s hos pital o rde rlies , and inc arce rate d me n we re be ing thre atene d w ith pu nis hme nt if they did not wo rk in the S kille d N urs ing U nit—with no training at all—to fill in fo r the s ic k s taff. F o r info rmatio n abo ut dev elopme nts in othe r state fac ilities, see App e ndix A. LOCAL FACILITIES W he n the pande mic began, e xperts qu ic kly ide ntifie d jails as s ites that co uld pote ntially e xplode the le vel of infectio n in a co mmu nity . O f all types of c arce ral institutio ns , jails are u niquely pos itio ne d to spre ad infe ctio n bec ause o f the ir high rate of “c hu rn, ” w he re peo ple are bo o ke d and release d in s ho rt time pe riods . 137 Sheriffs ’ respo nses to C O V ID -19 varie d dramatic ally ac ross the state. W he n the State ’s H ealth E qu ity T as k F orce re qu este d data fro m s he riffs across the s tate, only 6 o f 64 parishes res po nde d to this c all. 138 T his low respo nse is partic ularly co ncerning give n that 13, 48 5 me n and w o me n se nte nced to s tate pris o n time se rv e the ir s entences in loc al parish jails and pris o ns. T he loc al fac ilities were e xc lu de d fro m all state repo rting. 139 W he n t h e S t a t e’ s H e a l t h E q u i t y T a sk F o r c e r eq u e st ed d a t a f ro m s h er if f s a c r o s s t he st a t e , o nl y 6 o f 6 4 pa r i sh e s re spo nd e d t o t h is c a l l . Orleans Parish Prison G ive n the qu ic k s pre ad of c o ro nav irus in N ew O rle ans, it is u nsu rpris ing multiple pe ople detained in the O rle ans P arish P ris on (O PP) tes ted pos itive by M arc h 23. O P P offic ials did not make this pu blic; inste ad, the information bec ame pu blic w he n detaine d pe ople c o ntacted adv o cates fro m the O rleans P aris h Pris o n Refo rm C o alitio n. By late A pril, 9 7 individu als at O PP had teste d pos itive , w ith hu ndreds of o ther tes ts aw aiting res ults . 140 In a rare e xample of proactiv e dec is io nmaking, the O rleans P aris h S heriff’s A dministration dec ided to imple ment mass testing at O PP and e xpre ssly c ho se not to se nd pe ople de taine d in O P P to C amp J , c laiming those infecte d PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 31 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE in O PP we re be ing e ffe ctiv ely qu arantined. 141 H owe ve r, prose cutors objected to atte mpts to rectify the s ituatio n by re fus ing atte mpts to redu ce bo nd, argu ing that rele as ing inc arcerated indiv idu als w ould ris k spre ading c oro nav irus to the general public. 142 H owe ve r, jail offic ials s till faile d to take su ffic ie nt me asu res to c o ntro l the v irus in O PP. In early A pril, so me detained peo ple had no access to mas ks or s oap. P eo ple detained the re we re bec o ming so c o nce rne d that they c o nte mplate d a hunge r strike. A s o f A pril 16, 3 26 o ut o f 8 0 3 pe o ple detaine d in O P P had bee n teste d for c o ro nav irus, w ith abo ut 3 0% testing pos itive. P eo ple w ho exhibited se vere sy mpto ms w ere take n out of the jail to a hospital. By late A pril tw o e mployees had die d, and o ve r 7 0 e mploy ees had tes te d pos itive. 143 In early M ay, a detained pers o n re ported that a do rm full of pe ople re co ve ring fro m C O V ID -19 had no glo ves , ble ac h, or hand s anitiz ers and o nly had mas ks that were w ee ks o ld. me asu res that the S he riff’s D e partme nt c hose to re duce the inc arcerated po pulatio n w ere u nde rmine d by the N ew O rle ans P o lice D epartme nt 145 and D istrict A tto rney ’s O ffice , w ho c o ntinue d to arrest and prose cute peo ple as if it we re bus iness as usu al. 146 P rosec utors c hastise d pu blic defe nde rs fo r try ing to “e xplo it” the pandemic to ge t the ir clie nts re le ase d fro m custody, w ith the s po kespe rs on fo r the D istrict A tto rney ’s O ffice stating the pande mic was no t “a time to e nc ou rage law less ness.”147 H owe ve r, the Sheriff’s D e partme nt c o mplie d w ith rele ase orde rs and jo ined public defende rs in as king ju dges to inc reas e the nu mber of pe o ple be ing re le ase d fro m O PP , 148 c utting the jail po pu latio n by a qu arter. 149 Thou gh the c ou rts o rde re d a limite d nu mber of E ve n be fo re the v irus like ly re ac he d the jail, public defende rs calle d for the re le ase o f peo ple detained in the jail o n no n-v iole nt offens es. 144 A ny PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 32 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE pe ople re le ased, a signific ant po rtio n of the inc arce rate d po pu latio n detaine d pretrial had no rec ou rse bec ause there w ere no trials be ing held, bo nds had no t bee n set, or they had a parole ho ld. 150 E ve n when pe ople might have bee n e ligible fo r re leas e, the re w as c onfus ion o ve r habe as juris diction and delays in mandato ry hearings . 151 individu als w ith co ro nav irus . 156 F E M A and the s he riff’s office gave c onflic ting dates o n when the reno vatio ns are pro jected to be finis he d, w ith S heriff G us man re maining s ile nt o n whethe r the project w ould re place large rsc ale e ffo rts to reduce the jail po pu latio n by cu rbing arres ts fo r mino r o ffe nses . 157 A fte r an initial dec line of the v irus , O PP e xperie nc ed a s pike in late M ay, w ith 94 c onfirme d c ases repo rte d o n M ay 20. 152 T hou gh Sheriff M arlin G us man repo rte d o n Ju ne 18 that O PP had taken me asures to e radic ate c o ronav irus amo ng the incarc erate d indiv iduals and staff, 153 C hristian F ree man, w ho w as detaine d fo r c harges relate d to his e xperience with su bstance abuse , die d s udde nly after c ollaps ing at the fac ility o n Ju ne 25. 154 D u ring the auto psy, it w as co nfirme d that he w as pos itive for c o ro nav irus. 155 D es pite the poss ibility o f futu re w av es, o n July 31, O P P s hippe d e ighty- o ne peo ple to o the r fac ilities aro und the state. East Baton Rouge Parish Prison In late A u gust, Sheriff M arlin G us man qu ie tly rele ase d a plan to s pe nd $ 9.3 millio n, inclu ding $7 millio n of F E M A funds , to re no vate a v ac ate d jail bu ilding to house inc arcerated In mid- M arch, E as t B ato n R ouge P arish S he riff S id G autre au x s aid the re we re no cas es of c o ro nav irus in the pris o n, but admitted that o ne cas e ins ide the fac ility co uld rapidly s pre ad. 158 S hortly thereafte r, in late M arc h, the pris on had its first c onfirme d c ase, leading pris o n offic ials to mo ve 94 inc arcerated peo ple into qu arantine. 159 A cc o rding to repo rts fro m ins ide the fac ility , at firs t no one co uld get a C O V ID -19 tes t u nless they had a feve r o f 10 0 .4 de grees. A ro und A pril 9, hos pital staff extende d tes ts to ev eryo ne dis play ing sy mpto ms, which w as still a limite d appro ac h. A s more pe ople be gan to fall ill in the pris o n, de taine d pe o ple repo rte d cruelty whe n they as ked fo r he lp. They w ere peppe r s praye d, is o lated, and de nied fo o d. When detained PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 33 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE pe ople trie d to repo rt the c o nce rning c onditions to the may or, s he share d the ir re po rts w ith the w arden, w ho had a talk w ith the detained pe ople but to o k no steps to address the c o nditio ns. By mid-A pril, ov er 5 0 peo ple had tested pos itive. 160 T he pris o n res po nde d by mo v ing indiv idu als w ho tes ted pos itive to a part of the jail that had be en s hut dow n in 2018 o r trans porting the m to the hos pital if ne cess ary. 161 In res po nse to ris ing c ases , the c riminal le gal syste m c ame to gethe r to redu ce the lo cal pre trial po pulatio n. Law e nfo rce ment foc use d arres ts o n se rious and no nv iolent charges , and prosecu to rs, public defende rs, and ju dges w orked to gethe r to ide ntify pe o ple fo r rele ase e ve n if they c ou ld no t affo rd the ir bonds, reac hing a te n-ye ar rec o rd low for the pre trial po pulatio n. 162 E ve n w ith these po pulatio n re ductio n me asu res , ov er 1, 0 0 0 pe ople were still sharing c o nfine d s paces w itho ut a poss ibility fo r s oc ial distanc ing. 163 By mid- M ay there we re 9 3 co nfirme d cas es of c o ro nav irus ins ide the facility . 164 O n M ay 27 , in respo nse to the ballo oning nu mber of cas es inside the priso n, the A dv ance me nt P roje ct and the C enter fo r C o nstitutio nal R ights PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 34 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE file d a laws u it s ee king a te mporary restraining orde r o n be half o f inc arce rated individu als fo r the ongo ing and se rious ris ks ins ide the fac ility. 165 S heriff S id G au tre au x and W arden D e nnis G rimes, defendants in the fede ral su it, c laime d they had the pande mic u nde r c o ntro l and we re strictly fo llow ing pu blic he alth gu idelines. 166 M eanw hile , plaintiffs like D ev o nte Stew art, w ho de velo ped high blo o d pres sure after be ing expose d to C O V ID -19 , claimed that the pris o n did not fo llow testing o r qu arantine proc edures w he n bringing new indiv idu als into ge neral po pu latio n. 167 U ltimate ly, like other litigatio n see king rele ase , the motion fo r a te mporary restraining orde r was de nied. 168 M arc h and O ctober, w ith o ve r half o f the c ases occ urring in A pril. T he re have als o bee n rece nt repo rts that the priso n is no lo nger quarantining peo ple fo r 14 days, bec ause they do no t have e nough spac e. F o r info rmatio n abo ut dev elopme nts in othe r lo cal parish fac ilities, see App e ndix B. In ge ne ral, E ast B aton R ou ge P arish P riso n has be en u nw illing o r u nable to share info rmatio n regarding the status o f the pande mic at the fac ility. In respo nse to a pu blic rec o rds request, the s he riff’s o ffic e indic ated that it has no information regarding the total nu mber of C O V ID - 19 tests administe re d to its inc arce rated po pu latio n o r how many had tes te d positive . The office repo rte d a total o f 41 staff c o nfirme d staff cas es betw ee n PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 35 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE PART II: INADEQUATE AND HARMFUL GOVERNMENT RESPONSES T he state of L ou is iana and its parishes have respo nded in ineffective and harmful ways to the pandemic be hind bars . Instead o f imple me nting c o mmon-se nse re forms to re duce the spre ad of C O V ID -19 in state wide fac ilities, the S tate ’s res po nse has bee n w oe fully inadequ ate to c ontain the v irus and pro perly ide ntify and treat those infected w ith it. INITIAL STATEWIDE RESPONSE Camp J O ne of the o nly fu lly imple me nte d plans fro m the S tate was the de c isio n to have loc al jails and state pris o ns se nd inc arce rated pe ople w ho tes te d positive for C O V ID -19 to C amp J at L SP in lie u of prov iding the m w ith appro priate me dic al c are in a hospital setting. C amp J is no t a he althcare fac ility—it is a prev ious ly s huttered u nit notorious fo r its c rue l co nditions , and it is loc ated w ithin L SP , a pris o n that w as re ce ntly fou nd by a fe de ral c ou rt to pro v ide an u nc o nstitu tio nally inade qu ate leve l of me dic al care . 169 Prior to be ing pe rmanently close d in M ay 2018 , C amp J e xperie nced s ignificant mo ld and flo oding, and c onditions w ithin we re desc ribed as w o rse than de ath ro w. 170 C amp J w as des igned as a disc iplinary u nit, where pe ople who had bro ke n ru les o r had be hav ioral issues w ou ld be held in so litary c o nfine me nt, w hic h is not an appro priate replace me nt for ethic al me dic al is olatio n and co uld pote ntially w o rse n the c risis . 171 J ero me M o rgan, a fo rme rly incarc erate d pers o n who was held in so litary c o nfine me nt at C amp J , desc ribed the plan as e ffe ctiv ely “pu nis hing them fo r be ing sic k.”172 T his plan s ubjected peo ple w ho we re potentially at ris k of los ing the ir lives o r sustaining lifelo ng inju ry to c o nditio ns that likely inc reas ed ris k of dise ase and de ath. In fac t, this plan dire ctly c o ntrave ne d LD H and C D C rec o mme ndatio ns to transfe r infe cte d pe o ple to he althcare fac ilities. 173 L SP , w he re C amp J is loc ate d, is s itu ated o ve r an PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 36 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE ho ur away fro m the ne ares t refere nc e hospital. T he State the refo re o pte d to c o nc entrate inc arcerated C O V ID -19 patie nts fro m all ov er the s tate—a dispropo rtio nate nu mbe r o f w hom are e lderly o r othe rw ise me dic ally vulne rable—in a re mo te fac ility w ith no hos pital ne arby. M o re o ver, the D O C ’s o w n policy state d that it w as pre fe rable fo r infected peo ple to re main in lo cal facilities rathe r than be trans po rte d, w hic h has the potential to s pre ad the diseas e eve n mo re. 174 Bu t w he n the state w as c hallenge d to c o me u p w ith a plan to res pond to the lo oming impac t of the pande mic in pris o ns and jails, they c hose to s ac rifice any modicu m of respect fo r inc arce rated pe ople ’s he alth and s afe ty. O nc e pe ople we re expe rienc ing se rious C O V ID -19 s ympto ms and tested at the ir o rigin fac ility, w hic h likely me ant they had be en c o ntagious for days, they we re transferre d to C amp J. 175 L ess than tw o wee ks afte r the transfers began, there w as alre ady a critic al s ho rtage o f me dic al staff: The ratio o f nu rses to patie nts in C amp J me dic al is o latio n w as already dange ro us at 1:20 in mid-A pril. 176 S o me of the pe o ple brou ght to C amp J we re expe rie nc ing Figure 6: Photo of mold in Camp J shortly after camp closure sy mpto ms s o s eve re that the y nee de d IV mac hines o r o xy ge n masks , and many had c omo rbidities that s ignific antly inc reas ed the ir risk of sev ere sy mpto ms. 177 D espite thes e inc reas ed ris ks , the limite d me dic al staff w orking in C amp J we re u npre pare d to c are for anyo ne w ho su dde nly dev eloped se vere sy mpto ms o r requ ire d hos pitalizatio n be caus e C amp J was ne ithe r a he althc are fac ility no r had it bee n co nve rte d to a makes hift he althc are ce nte r. 178 T he closes t hos pital to LS P, West F elic iana P arish H ospital, had no v entilators and w as not pre pared to care for patients requ iring intu batio n. 179 A nu mbe r o f incarc erate d pe o ple repres ented to a fe de ral c ourt PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 37 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE that the y w ere c o nc erne d the y w ou ld not rece ive medical c are s ho uld the ir s y mpto ms be c ome se ve re. 180 A bout a mo nth afte r the plan we nt into e ffe ct, the re were abou t 134 patie nts in C amp J. 181 P eo ple w ho had bee n trans ferre d there re po rte d that they we re be ing house d in a do rmitory se tting w ith v ery s ic k patients. 182 PJI; the S outhe rn P o ve rty L aw C e nte r; and law firm O rric k, H e rrington, and S utc liffe brou ght litigatio n in G u mns v. E dwards o n be half of pe ople who had bee n trans ferre d to C amp J o r we re at ris k of be ing transfe rre d to C amp J. D es pite the du nge onlike c o nditio ns and abys mal me dic al c are fo r infecte d pe ople, U .S. D istrict Ju dge S helly D ic k fou nd the plan pass ed muste r. Ju dge D ic k fo cuse d o n fe atu res like a ne w air c onditio ning s yste m, w hic h itse lf might inc re ase spre ad bas ed o n new info rmatio n abo ut the spre ad of c oro nav irus. In Ju ne, a man incarc erate d in S t. Be rnard P aris h w as trans ferre d to C amp J and w rote to PJI: “I tes te d p ositive for C ovid-19 and was shipp e d off to L o uis iana S tate P riso n – Ang ola on 4.3 0.2020 , where I was hous ed on C amp J (p art of the priso n that was de e med inhu man du e to its c onditions ) for 3 4 days, unde r e xtreme co nditio ns (no A/C , no drinkab le water as well as b eing hous ed in a c e ll filled with rust and mold) while already dealing with a resp iratory infec tion.” Review Panel In mid- A pril, as the pande mic began to reach c ris is lev el in state pris ons , the state annou nce d a R ev iew P anel that w ou ld c o nside r fu rlou ghs fo r 1, 20 0 peo ple in D O C custo dy w ho w ere w ithin the final s ix mo nths of a se nte nce fo r a no nv io le nt, no n- sex- offens e, making u p o nly 4 perce nt o f the po pu latio n in D O C custo dy. 183 F urlough requ ire d five out o f s ix poss ible v otes fro m the pane l. 184 In practic e, few indiv idu als from the already ve ry narrow po ol of e ligible incarc erate d pe o ple we re e ver rele ase d. W he n the G o ve rno r mov ed the S tate to P hase Tw o o n J une 1, 20 20 , the D O C c hose to disband the panel despite high rates of c o ro nav irus in state fac ilities and 14 deaths . 185 W he n the panel w as disc o ntinue d, o nly 6 3 pe ople had bee n re leas ed of the potential 1, 20 0, c o mpris ing 0 .2 pe rc ent of the to tal nu mber PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 38 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE ~ --- DOC Population • about 30,000 - -- - -- Granted Furlough • 100 Actually Released • 63 Cost of Needless Incarceration = over $2,549,000 in D O C custody. 186 PJ I has racial data for only a po rtion of the pe ople who we re re v iewe d by the P anel, but that limite d data su ggest that the P anel was mo re like ly to grant fu rlou gh to w hite indiv idu als o ve r B lac k individu als . vii T he incredible narro wness of the fu rlou gh plan c ost the State millio ns of do llars . Betwe en those who we re eligible fo r rev ie w but denie d rele ase by the panel, and those w ho were grante d releas e but not actu ally rele ase d imme diately, the D O C inc arcerated peo ple fo r mo nths u nnec essarily during the pande mic. A s o f N o ve mber 4, those indiv iduals re v iewe d by the P anel had bee n he ld fo r a c o mbine d total of at le ast 9 7 , 819 days past rev iew . 187 A t a c ost of $26.39 pe r day, viii the state spent ov er $ 2, 5 49 , 00 0 inc arcerating pe ople who we re w ithin the final s ix mo nths of the ir se ntences for no nv iolent, no n-se x- offe nses—du ring a pande mic. T hes e funds c ould have be en s pe nt o n testing, vii viii PJI has racial data for 319 individuals who were reviewed by the Panel. Of those, 61% were Black, and 39% were white, but only 48% of those granted furlough were Black, while 52% were white. Prior to July 1, the cost was $25.39. The difference between pre- and post-July incarceration costs is accounted for in this calculation. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 39 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE P PE , hospital e qu ipment, is olatio n fac ilities, staffing, v ac c ine av ailability , or c ou ntless othe r res ou rc es that c ou ld have helped, rather than hu rt, L ou is ianans. c o rrectio nal se ttings, the rac ial disparities are likely higher in L ou is iana pris ons and jails bec ause of the pre- existing disparities in the c riminal le gal syste m. O n O cto be r 20, 20 20, R epres entative Te d J ames intro duc ed H R 37 , w hic h requests that the D e partme nt o f P ublic S afety and C orre ctions rec o nve ne the C O V ID - 19 F urlough Re v iew P anel. 188 T hat legislatio n pass ed the L ou is iana H ouse of Re prese ntative tw o days later and w as prese nted to the S ecretary of State. H ow eve r, it re mains to be see n w hethe r the G ov ernor w ill re -start the rev ie w pane l. O n Ju ne 15, the Su bc o mmitte e o n Spe c ial Po pu latio ns fo r P ris ons , made up o f expe rts o n public health and incarce ration in the state , releas ed the ir repo rt and rec o mme ndatio ns. 190 T he y re viewe d a s ignific ant amo unt of material, including repo rts fro m incarc erate d pe ople, and made imme diate rec o mme ndatio ns, inc lu ding: Health Equity Task Force In anothe r plan to res pond to the v irus, G o verno r E dw ards c o nv ened a T as k F orce inte nded to ide ntify the impact o f C O V ID -19 o n vu lnerable po pu latio ns, inclu ding inc arcerated peo ple. T his w as an impo rtant ste p to help address the rac ial disparities in de aths fro m C O V ID -19 in L ou is iana. N amely, Blac k peo ple make u p o ne -third o f the state ’s po pu latio n, but mo re than half o f the C O V ID -19 re lated de aths. 189 A lthough we do not have rac ial data for the infe ctio ns o r de aths in 1. T he G o ve rno r s hould appo int a Statew ide Indepe nde nt H e alth M o nitor ove r all jails and priso ns ; 2. D e carc eration or c o ntro lle d e vacu ation to e nable prope r s oc ial distanc ing; 3 . E vacu ate all pos itiv e patients to medic al fac ility for o bs ervatio n/tre atme nt; 4. E nable s o cial distanc ing as the c orne rsto ne o f mitigatio n; 5 . P rioritize tes ting, hygie ne , and sanitation; 6 . A dopt me asu res to address C O V ID -19 relate d mental he alth c once rns ; and 7 . LD H to wo rk in c ollabo ratio n w ith D O C to pro vide realtime , pu blic ly available data o n C O V ID -19 de aths, c ases, PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 40 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE and fac ility C O V ID -19 pre paredness and res pons e protoc ols . 191 D es pite these reas o nable, e v idence- base d, and u rge nt rec o mme ndatio ns, the State to o k almost no s te ps to imple me nt the m. E ach rec o mme ndatio n w as key to re duc ing v iral s pread and s av ing lives, w hile als o maintaining the re habilitativ e goals of our c riminal jus tice syste m. In A u gus t, the H e alth E qu ity T as k F o rc e pro duc ed anothe r re po rt, w ith mo difie d re co mme ndatio ns fro m the S ubco mmittee o n S pe c ial Po pu latio ns for P ris ons . 192 The new immediate rec o mme ndatio ns w ere as fo llows, w ith emphas is adde d to the rec o mmendations that w ere s ignificantly mo difie d fro m the Ju ly re port. T he tw o c hange d rec o mme ndatio ns are less stringe nt and ine vitably re qu ire less w o rk o n be half o f the state and less acc ou ntability to e nsu re that pris o ns are mee ting natio nal gu idelines and pro pe rly e vacu ating incarce rate d pe o ple w ith C O V ID - 19. D es pite these c hanges , o nly me ager ste ps have be en take n to implement these rec o mme ndatio ns. T he state ’s inactio n he re de monstrates an indifference HEALTH E QUITY TASK FORCE JULY RECO MME NDAT IONS 1. We reco mmend th e governo r appoint a Statewid e Public Heal th & Corrections COVID-19 Coordina tor to wo rk in clos e collaboratio n wi th a team to support jails and prisons in compl ying wi th CDC and OSHA guidelin es a nd make recommenda tions regard ing pandemic practices, policies, and proc edures in p risons and jails ; 2. Decarc era tion or co ntroll ed evacua tion to ena ble proper social distancing; 3. Ensure app rop ria te h eal th ca re trea tmen t, in cluding evacua tion where sy mpto ma tic, fo r all inca rc erated p eopl e w ho tes t positive; 4. Enable social distancing as the cornerstone of mitigation; 5. Prioritiz e t esting, hygi ene, and sanitation; 6. Adopt measur es to addr ess COVID- 19 r elat ed m enta l healt h concer ns; a nd 7. LDH to work i n collabo ration with DP S&C to provide r eal time, publi cly ava ilabl e data o n COVID- 19 d eaths, cas es, and facility COVID -19 p repa red ness and respo nse pro tocols. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 41 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE tow ards the he alth and lives of inc arcerated peo ple and su rro unding c o mmunities. MISINFORMATION AND A LACK OF TRANSPARENCY A s the C O V ID -19 pande mic initially u nfolde d, it w as u nde rstandable that info rmatio n and gov ernme nt strate gy w ould c hange qu ic kly , just as our u nde rstanding o f C O V ID -19 e vo lv ed. B ut that does no t e xplain o r justify the inte ntional mis info rmatio n and the lac k o f trans pare nc y fro m s tate and loc al agencies abo ut the v irus ’s s pre ad in c orrec tio nal institutio ns. T he D O C made misreprese ntations—regarding the ste ps that it w as taking—to inc arcerated peo ple and the ir families , the public , and the c ou rts . F amily me mbe rs c alling about lo ve d ones ofte n rec e ive d mis info rmatio n. M ic hael W illiams w as e xpe rienc ing se ve re s y mpto ms by the time he was allowe d to c all his family . 193 When the family and his atto rney co ntac te d L SP o ffic ials, they we re to ld M r. W illiams did not have c o ro nav irus. 194 H e w as s o on hos pitalize d. 195 H is family c o ntinue d to rece ive c onflicting information u ntil they we re told M r. Williams w as close to de ath, less than a w ee k after M r. W illiams initially re porte d sy mpto ms to his family. 196 H e w as de clared brain dead be fo re his family c ou ld get to the hos pital. 197 PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 42 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE P ublicly , D O C o ffic ials repo rte d that pe o ple incarc erate d in state pris ons we re prov ide d w ith tw o masks that w ere w as hed and sanitize d daily. 198 Bu t inc arce rated pe ople repo rte d that they we re stru ggling to get any mas ks ne arly tw o months into the pande mic, and in res po nse, me mbers of V o ices of the E xperie nced (V O T E ) hand delivered mas ks to the D O C . 199 F urther, by re fus ing to co nduc t mass testing at L SP , des pite the av ailability o f tests, and repo rting only the pos itive resu lts of sy mpto matic pe ople, the D O C w as able to re po rt u nbelie vably low tes t resu lts for su ch a large and o ve rc ro wded pris o n. 200 In fac t, the methodo lo gy made public he alth expe rts s uspicious that the nu mbe rs we re inacc urate . Inc arce rate d pe ople o fte n gav e mo re re alistic ass ess me nts of the rate of infectio n just by ix More than half of all incarcerated people serving sentences under state custody are held in local jails instead of state prisons. Local jails house people in state custody for a daily per diem and use that money to supplement their budgets. At the time that the pandemic began, 13,844 incarcerated people in state custody were in one of the over 100 parish jails statewide. Louisiana Profile, PRISON POLICY INITIATIVE, https://www.prisonpolicy.org/profiles/LA.html (last visited Oct. 30, 2020); Julia O’Donoghue, As repo rting the nu mbe r of sy mpto matic pe ople at a s ingle po int in time in the ir do rm. 201 E ve n w he n the D O C did pro vide nu mbers , the y w ere hard to dec ipher and ou tdate d. 202 A dditio nally, be cause s o many inc arcerated peo ple in D O C c ustody are held in loc al paris h jails , determining the true nu mber of pe o ple e xpose d to C O V ID -19 , teste d for it, or pos itive in e ac h facility and u nde r state or loc al cus to dy w as imposs ible. ix In a c ou rt c ase challe nging the c o nditio ns at R ay bu rn C o rrectional C enter, a fe de ral judge fou nd it “trou bling that D O C offic ials, at le ast at R ay bu rn, hav e apparently disre garde d the impo rtance o f s oc ial distanc ing in pre ve nting the spre ad of this u nique diseas e.”203 F u rthe r, afte r he aring tes timo ny fro m incarc erate d pe ople, Ju dge J ac ks o n fo und the ir statements “c re dible ” and prison population drops, Louisiana sheriffs ask for more money, NOLA.COM (Apr. 18, 2019), https://www.nola.com/news/article_ce3f6329d9fe-55f4-a295-97db50afe4ff.html; Anat Rubin et al., Inside the U.S.’s Largest Maximum-Security Prison, COVID-19 Raged. Outside, Officials Called Their Fight a Success, PROPUBLICA (Jun 24, 2020), https://www.propublica.org/article/inside-the-usslargest-maximum-security-prison-covid-19-raged. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 43 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE that the y had “paint[e d] a very differe nt pictu re ” fro m what D O C offic ials had repo rte d. 204 W he n pe o ple inc arcerated in state pris ons he ard the disc repanc ies betwe en the D O C ’s public s tate me nts and the ir live d re alities , they re ac he d out to adv oc ates , lo ve d o nes, and jo urnalists in an effo rt to tell the ir tru th. 205 It is only bec ause of the ir tireless e fforts that w e have a ge nu ine u nde rstanding o f the D O C ’s respo nse . T he State ’s res po ns ibility for c ando r is particu larly impo rtant w he n caring for pe ople in c ustody bec ause of the phys ic al barriers these po pulatio ns have to c ommunicatio n w ith the o uts ide wo rld. State o ffic ials not o nly faile d to meet these respo ns ibilities with respect to inc arcerated po pulatio ns, bu t they als o affirmativ ely e ngaged in misle ading be hav ior that calls fo r fu rther investigatio n. DEPLORABLE CONDITIONS OF CONFINEMENT A cross the c o untry , pris o ns respo nde d to C O V ID - 19 by c ance lling v is itation, re qu iring inc arcerated peo ple to re main in the ir dorms o r ce lls, and maintaining co nditio ns o f c o nfine me nt that v iolate ou r v alues o f de cency and hu manity. T he res pons e by o ffic ials in Lo u isiana w as no differe nt. L ou is iana has a lo ng and s to rie d history of detaining and inc arcerating pe ople in partic ularly cruel c o nditio ns. T his was e xace rbate d by the pande mic. P eo ple we re mo ve d into areas at LS P and E ast Bato n R o uge P arish P riso n that we re pre v iously c o ns idere d u ninhabitable, du e to the ir age , dec ay ing state , and mo ld infestatio ns. P ris o n o ffic ials cu t o ff re habilitativ e activ ities that are ess ential to daily life fo r inc arcerated peo ple. M os t impo rtantly , pris o n c o nditio ns are unc ons titutional ' 1111111111 "IJl Ill - 111 •• 1111111 1 l'M i :.!! • - •-··-" 1.,·: _ 1111' 11111 l~r; I ; ,ii, 11111 fm Ill 1,, 11111111 111111 . 1111 ;I 1 PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 i;:'1 11 ! I ;;; - l~'-111, ' 111 · ~III 11111 11 1 ' " . !1111 1111111 111 " , :1111 11111 I 111 1 ' I II ',, 44 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE w he n they create a s ubstantial ris k of serious harm. T he c o ntinue d detentio n o f pe ople w ho w ere e ligible for rele ase by multiple me c hanis ms, as o utline d be low, during the pande mic was c rue l and u nus ual bec ause it pu t e ac h and e ve ry o ne o f the m at s ubstantial ris k of the w o rst poss ible harm: de ath. Solitary Confinement and Lockdowns P rinc ipally , c o rrectio nal offic ials respo nde d to C O V ID - 19 o r e xposu re to the virus by plac ing pe ople in s o litary c o nfine me nt o r putting po rtions of a fac ility o n loc kdow n. F or e xample, at L SP , pe o ple w ho e xhibite d sy mpto ms w ere place d in is olatio n that w as akin to s olitary co nfine me nt. 206 S olitary c o nfine me nt is distinct fro m ethic al me dic al is olatio n bec ause it is pu nitive , ke eps pe ople unde r the c o ntrol o f c o rrectio nal rather than medic al staff, and s ubjects peo ple to c rue l co nditions w ith lo ng-term ne gative phys ic al and psyc hological e ffects . 207 S o litary c o nfine me nt likely dete rre d pe ople fro m re porting sy mpto ms and le d to increas ed v iral s pre ad. A dditio nally, the U nite d N atio ns and hu man rights bo dies co ns ider s olitary c o nfine me nt a fo rm of torture that s hould be u nifo rmly banne d, making it particularly c rue l to impose u po n pe o ple e xperie ncing o r e xpos ed to a life- thre ate ning illness . No or Inadequate Medical Care A s pre vio usly mentio ne d, fac ilities ac ross Lo u isiana we re alre ady failing to meet the c o nstitu tio nal flo or fo r he althc are for incarce rate d pe ople, w hic h is a ve ry low bar. T his was particu larly tru e at LS P and the E ast B ato n Ro uge P arish P riso n. S till, the me dic al c are fell s harply at many of these fac ilities du ring the pande mic bec ause of o ve rw helme d me dic al staff, insuffic ie nt su pplies, and an unprece de nted pande mic. C linic al c are at L SP re maine d s uspende d as o f e arly D e ce mber. O ne family me mber w ho c o ntacted PJ I w rote “I just got a c all fro m my s o n fro m A ngo la. H e is frantic be cause his me dic al needs are be ing igno red. In the past I c alled and peste re d the po we rs that be to help him, but it has no t bee n w o rking lately . It has bee n tw o y ears s inc e he was laste d PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 45 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE $3-$6 = c o st o f pl a c i ng a sic k c a l l a t L S P 2¢-20¢/hour = a n i nc a r c e r a t ed pe r so n’ s w a g e at LSP tes te d fo r his hep-C .” A man inc arcerated at E ast B aton R o uge P arish P riso n reporte d that he w as not be ing give n his bloo d pressu re me dicatio n, and failure to c ontrol his bloo d pres sure w ou ld he ighten his ris k o f sev ere sy mpto ms if he were to c ontract C O V ID -19 . A w o man repo rte d that s he w as not rece iv ing he r se izure me dic ation and that her diabetes w as be ing po o rly managed. A c ance r and C O V ID -19 su rv ivo r at Ray mo nd L abo rde C orrec tio nal C e nte r s aid that he had blo od in his sto ol, but medical offic ials were refusing to give him a c olo nosc opy. S ev eral me n inc arcerated at L SP have re ported that they do no t bother to plac e s ic k c alls w he n they ne ed me dical atte ntio n bec aus e it is a w aste o f mo ne y, sinc e it almos t ne ve r resu lts in them getting to s ee a do ctor. Plac ing a s ic k c all at L SP c osts betwe en $3 and $6 if it is an e me rgency—whic h is a s ignificant e xpe nse fo r pe o ple w ho e arn betwe en tw o and tw enty ce nts pe r hou r. T he pris o n had te mpo rarily sto pped c harging for s ic k c alls during the pandemic, but PJI has rece ive d re ports that the c harges have s inc e resu me d. A midst it all, pris o n me dic al staff co ntinue d to acc use inc arcerated me n of “malinge ring”—pre te nding to be s ic k to av o id go ing to wo rk o r to gain s o me other benefit. 208 M alinge ring is generally pu nis he d w ith trans fe r to a disc iplinary unit or place me nt in s olitary co nfine me nt, c o nse que nc es that most individu als w ould not be likely to ris k du ring the pande mic . A ssu ming malinge ring c an lead to le gitimate and lifethreate ning s ympto ms be ing igno red. M oreo ve r, in a time w he n eve ry headac he and s ign o f fatigue is c ause fo r anxie ty amo ng pe ople who are not inc arcerated, the threat of be ing pu nis he d for malinge ring c an lead to u nderre porting of sy mpto ms, and thus u nidentifie d pos itive c ases o f PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 46 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE C O V ID -19 , among incarce rate d po pu latio ns. Forced Labor in Dangerous Conditions N ationwide , there have be en w ides pre ad discuss io ns abo ut w o rkplac e co nditio ns and w o rking fro m ho me s inc e the o ns et o f the pande mic. But little o f thos e discuss io ns have bee n fo cuse d o n fo rc ed labo r in pris o n se ttings o r wo rk re leas e pro grams at loc al jails. T hou gh c o rrectio nal institutio ns state wide s hut dow n v is itatio n and so me trans fers betwe en pris o ns, both o f w hic h are po te ntial av enues fo r spre ad of the v irus, many parish jails c o ntinue d their wo rk re le ase pro grams, mo v ing de taine d pe ople bac k and fo rth betw ee n jails and co mmu nities . 209 O n A pril 3 , w he n a pers o n partic ipating in the E ast B aton R o uge w o rk rele ase program repo rte d sy mpto ms o f C O V ID 19, he w as giv en ho me o pathic re me dies and se nt bac k to his c ell. 210 The fo llow ing day , he c o ntinue d to repo rt that he w as ill, afte r w hic h the w arden threate ne d him and o ffic ers c ho ke d him u ntil he was u nc o nsc ious. 211 H e w as not alo ne in this kind of abus e. Pe ople partic ipating in the O uachita P arish w ork rele ase program we re su bje cte d to u nsanitary c o nditio ns and inc ons istently prov ide d mas ks. 212 T hese s ame labo re rs had w orked at a po ultry plant u ntil late M arc h, w he n c iv ilian e mploye es be gan to test pos itiv e fo r c oro nav irus. 213 T h e f o l l o w i ng d a y, h e c o nt in u ed t o r epo r t t ha t h e w a s il l , a f t er w h ic h t h e w a r d e n t h r ea t e n ed h im a nd o f f ic er s c ho k e d h im u nt il he w a s u nc o nsc io u s. W he re w ork re le ase programs did c o me to a halt, the re was no c o rrespo nding c hange in the nu mber of hou rs that peo ple partic ipating in the pro gram we re require d to w ork to c o mplete the ir s ente nce . This e ffe ctiv ely exte nded the ir rele ase date and increas ed the ir c o nfine me nt bey ond what was o riginally intende d. A t L SP , w hic h is a fo rme r s lave plantatio n that c ontinu es to o perate the ir fields w ith force d labo r, those ass igned to w o rk in the fie lds c o ntinue d to inte rmitte ntly do s o with no s oc ial distanc ing. A cc ording to repo rts fro m thos e ins ide, they PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 47 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE we nt in and o ut of the priso n w ith no prec autio nary health o r I am a baker at C amp F . I was s le e ping in the do rm . . . and the Warden came and to ld me to pac k my stuff to go to C amp J. H e wanted me to move to C amp J to work. I told him I wo uldn’t g o and he wrote me up and loc ked up me and ano the r p ers on in a c e ll fo r refus ing to g o. I was worried abou t my health if I went to C amp J. I was in adminis trative se gregatio n fo r five days . Before that, I hadn’t had a write u p in many ye ars.” sc re ening me asu res take n. P eo ple w ho re fuse d to w ork in the fie lds during the pandemic we re se nt to loc kdow n. T hos e w ho bu ilt c o ffins fo r the pris o n grav ey ard and lay the m in the grou nd e xperience d an inc reas e in w o rk as the y lay s o many of the ir brothe rs to rest. 214 Inc arce rate d pe ople ass igned to the kitc he n o r to do maintenance w ork we re be ing requ ire d to e nter C amp J, w he re the C O V ID -19 patie nts we re be ing hous ed. A t one point, kitc he n staff we re ev en told they w ou ld have to mo ve into C amp J. O ne pers o n w as disc iplined fo r refusing to mo ve into those de crepit c o nditio ns, w hic h w o uld like ly ensure e xposu re to the virus : “I am a bake r at C amp F . I w as slee ping in the do rm . . . and the W arden c ame and to ld me to pac k my stu ff to go to C amp J. H e w ante d me to mov e to C amp J to wo rk. I told him I w ou ldn’t go and he w rote me u p and lo cked u p me and another perso n in a c ell fo r refus ing to go . I w as w o rrie d abo ut my he alth if I we nt to C amp J . I w as in administrative s egre gatio n for five days. Be fore that, I hadn’t had a write up in many ye ars.” P ris on and jail staff did little , if anything, to protect inc arcerated labo re rs, who ess entially ru n muc h of the day to- day o pe ratio ns o f the fac ilities. FAILURE TO USE RELEASE MECHANISMS P o pulatio n re ductio n was mo re u rgent in Lo u isiana than perhaps anywhere e lse in the w o rld bec ause of how c rowded the state ’s fac ilities we re. S o me jails began po pu latio n re du ctio n e fforts e arly w hile state and federal fac ilities lagged. 215 The PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 48 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE o nly ele ment of the s tate ’s plan to re le ase inc arce rate d pe ople in D O C custody, the Re v iew P anel, we nt largely u nfulfille d and u nde ru tiliz ed. C iv il rights attorne ys file d class actio n lawsu its, indiv idu al motio ns fo r relie f, and habeas petitions on be half o f inc arce rated pe ople se eking to be rele ase d. A dv oc ates ac ross the state c alle d fo r re le ases. F o r the most part, the litigatio n was u nsu ccess ful and the c alls w ent u nhee de d. A nother poss ible rele ase mec hanis m is pardons . G o ve rno r E dw ards has abs olute co ntrol o ve r pardo ns, bu t he faile d to s ign any u ntil mid-July, at w hic h po int he s igned a grand total o f s ix. M any of the pe o ple w hose pardo n pe titio ns are aw aiting the go vernor’s s ignatu re are me dic ally vulne rable, inclu ding a canc er patie nt w ith a 6- month pro gnos is. A nother issue that preve nted the rele ase o f inc arce rate d pe ople who we re ne aring the e nd of the ir se nte nce w as that the ir releas e w as c ontinge nt o n the c o mpletion of ce rtain c lass es o r pro gramming, w hic h w as s uspende d at the be ginning o f the pande mic . F or e xample , the family me mbe r o f s o me o ne at the C edarw oo d M ano r Wo rk R ele ase C e nter in C alcas ie u P arish reached out to P JI’s o ffice in A pril. The indiv idu al’s mo ther w as s erving a sente nce that re qu ired c o mpletio n of c ertain classes. N ot o nly w ere the classes sus pe nded, making rele ase imposs ible , but all w ork had be en sus pe nded, le av ing he r detained fo r no re aso n. A nother man w as de nied pardo n by the bo ard bec ause he lac ked the requ is ite classes, but s uc h c lass es are not available on the hos pital w ard w he re he is being held. In o ther s itu ations , indiv idual judges blo c ked rele ase bec ause o f a misu nde rstanding of the po te ntial cris is at hand. In C alcas ie u Paris h, ju dges, prose cutors , and c ou rt staff met to disc uss pu blic defe nde r H arry F o nte not’s argu me nt that no nv io le nt pe o ple shou ld be rele ase d to mitigate the e ffe cts o f C O V ID -19 in jail. 216 In adv ance o f the meeting, 14th J udic ial D istrict C ou rt J udge D av id R itc hie texte d his c o lle agues that pe o ple us ing dru gs had su ch po o r hy gie ne, sec o nd o nly to pe o ple e xperie nc ing me ntal illness, that they w ould be at gre ater ris k o f infection if rele ase d. 217 T hes e inaccu rate ge neraliz ations s ho we d a cle ar misu nderstanding of the dange r o f v iral s pread in c onfined PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 49 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE settings. Y et, Ju dge R itc hie c o ntinue d to have c ontrol o ve r and de ny the rele ase o f detained peo ple. 218 In N ew O rle ans, it w as prose cutors making abs urd argu me nts . P ublic de fe nders in N ew O rleans imme diate ly ac ted o n be half o f me dic ally v ulne rable c lie nts, filing mo tio ns to low er bo nds s o pe ople c ould be rele ase d befo re the virus spre ad thro ugh the jail. 219 P rosecu to rs respo nde d w ith bo ile rplate language argu ing that the c riminal defe ndants w ould actu ally incre ase the pu blic’s ris k of infectio n. 220 T his o ppos itio n ultimate ly inc re ase d the ris k for all of the N ew O rleans c ommunity by inc reas ing the like liho od that fac ility staff w ould be e xpose d and c ontribute to c ommunity s pre ad. T o date, faith leade rs and me dic al practitioners have requeste d the re le ase of appro ximately fiftee n medic ally v ulne rable patients ac ross the state fac ilities. F o r e xample, o ne patient is paralyz ed fro m the nec k dow n, and as a result has dev eloped bed s ores and a neu roge nic bladde r, w hic h requ ires a cathe ter to c ollect his u rine. H e has de velo pe d c o mplic ations fro m the c atheter, inc luding infe ction. Q uadriplegic patients are at inc reas ed ris k fo r res piratory (breathing) c o mplic ations . A nother patient su ffe rs fro m c ardiov asc ular dis eas e, histo ry o f stro ke , diabe tes mellitus, and hy perte ns io n. A ll pleas for rele ase have go ne unanswe re d. U nfo rtu nately, almos t e ve ry acto r at eve ry leve l in the syste m c o ntribute d to this failure to use re le ase mec hanis ms . Those respo ns ible fo r ens uring jus tice and the s afe ty o f ou r state and loc al c o mmu nities abandoned this duty . Rather, the y e qu ate d s afe ty w ith maximiz ing the nu mber of pe o ple behind bars. T his is w ro ng base d o n e v idence abo ut pu blic s afe ty and inc arce ratio n, and gav e no c o ns ideration to the w ays in w hic h mass inc arce ratio n pu ts all of us at ris k o f infection. O u r po litic ians and gove rnme nt leade rs hip must end the ir v ic io us c o mmitme nt to mass inc arceratio n. FAILURE TO CONDUCT MASS TESTING T he N ational Institute o f H ealth states that w ides pread C O V ID - PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 50 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 19 testing “s aves lives ” and is o ne of the ways that w ill allow us to eve ntu ally re tu rn to ou r no rmal lives . 221 H ow eve r, mos t fac ilities faile d to implement any kind of unive rsal, se rial tes ting eve n when they had acc ess to an abu ndance of tes ts. D O C o nly teste d 10 perce nt o f the state pris on syste m betw ee n the beginning o f A pril and early Ju ly. 222 O ve r 40 perce nt of those teste d we re pos itive for c o ro nav irus. 223 A cc ording to the L ou is iana D e partme nt of H e alth (LD H ), the D O C w as sent 24, 0 00 tes ts betw een the first w ee k o f Ju ne and the s ec ond wee k o f S epte mber. H owe ve r, the D O C we bs ite states that the y have o nly tested 7 , 155 incarc erate d pe ople and fewe r than 2, 114 staff (the D O C re po rts a total o f 2, 114 staff tested, but no tes that mo st s taff testing is s elfrepo rte d, no t administe re d by the D O C ), as o f D ece mbe r 4, 20 20 . 224 Ironically , the most c o mpre he ns iv e study of se rial tes ting for c oro nav irus w as c o nducted in an u nname d L ou is iana state priso n. The LD H and C D C began the inves tigatio n afte r s taff and inc arcerated peo ple teste d pos itive for c o ro nav irus betw een late M arc h and e arly A pril. 225 Se ve nty -o ne of 9 8 pe ople ac ross five do rmitories tes te d positive for c o ro nav irus du ring the se rial testing perio d. 226 O nly about half e xhibite d sy mpto ms during this perio d. 227 T he findings de monstrate d the impo rtance o f se rial testing rathe r than s imply sc re ening fo r sy mpto ms. T he state s ho uld hee d this e v idence- base d rec o mme ndatio n. Its failu re to do s o has like ly c ontribute d to the c o ntinue d s pread o f the diseas e in co rrec tio nal fac ilities and the resu lting deaths . PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 51 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE PART III: RECOMMENDATIONS T he go ve rnme nt e ntities respo ns ible for incarc erate d pe o ple in the state of L ou is iana canno t e xpect that qu ick or su pe rfic ial c hanges w ill s olve the horrific and pe rvas ive pro ble ms desc ribe d he re in; rathe r, thes e e ntities must e nact syste mic c hanges to ens ure that the rights and health of detained and inc arce rate d pe o ple are being prote cte d du ring times o f disas ter and dise ase. 1. R educe the use of inc arceratio n as a punis hme nt to ol, particularly life w itho ut the poss ibility of parole , and re duce the use of pre-trial dete ntio n. 2. Imme diately implement the Ju ly 2020 re co mme ndatio ns fro m the G ov ernor’s H e alth E qu ity T as k F orce ; 3 . G ive the H e alth E qu ity T as k F o rc e the au tho rity iss ue u pdated findings and rec o mme ndatio ns fo r the du ratio n of the pandemic; 4. Be gin u niv ers al, se rial C O V ID 19 testing in all c arce ral institutio ns in L ou is iana and c o ntinue fo r the du ratio n o f the pandemic ; 5 . A ppo int an inde pe nde nt mo nito r to e nsu re c o mpliance w ith C D C gu ide lines ; 6 . E nsu re the D O C , O J J, and loc al jails have le ade rship qu alifie d to res pond to pande mics, es pec ially futu re w av es of the c oro nav irus, and o the r disasters ; 7 . C o nv ene a c o mmittee to inves tigate the mis info rmatio n prov ide d to the pu blic and inc arcerated pe ople about the pande mic in state fac ilities ; 8 . A ffirmatively dev elop plans to prov ide effec tive me dic al c are to all pe ople inc arcerated at LS P; 9 . A me nd the Bas ic J ail G u idelines to re qu ire pande mic plans by lo c al parish pris o ns holding pe ople fo r D O C in loc al paris h pris o ns and inclu de w ithin thos e plans mec hanis ms fo r re po rting that w ou ld allow D O C to re fle ct the status of its e ntire inc arcerated po pulation, along w ith othe r best practices ; 10. P ass le gis latio n in c o nsultatio n with me dic al e xperts to: • R equ ire all fac ilities to pre pare and imple ment pande mic plans in c o mpliance w ith C D C gu idelines ; • M aintain a list of all detained or incarc erate d pe ople with tw o o r mo re c o morbidities and deve lop a plan fo r fu rlou gh and PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 52 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE • • • • • • ho me c o nfine me nt of these individu als ; R equ ire fac ilities to maintain a sto ck of PP E and o the r equ ipme nt nec essary for disasters ; F u nd and re qu ire C D C appro ve d pande mic training fo r D O C , O JJ , and loc al jail staff to be administe re d by a de dicate d div is ion of the L ou is iana D e partme nt o f H e alth; R equ ire all me dic al s taff w ho w o rk in D O C , O JJ , and loc al jail fac ilities to u nde rgo training o n malinge ring and clie ntc entered healthc are in c o rrectio nal se ttings ; P rohibit the use of s olitary c o nfine me nt for me dic al re aso ns when ethic al me dic al is o latio n is appro priate ; R equ ire the D O C , O JJ, and loc al jails to pro vide e ve ry detained or incarc erate d pers o n free wee kly v ide o o r pho ne calls during states of e me rge ncy and/o r w he n v is itatio n has bee n s uspende d fo r the fac ility ; M andate that ev ery institutio n—including me ntal health fac ilities, loc al jails , pris o ns, ju ve nile dete ntio n, and • • c o nfine me nt ce nte rs— repo rt the nu mbe r of c o ro nav irus tests av ailable, nu mber o f tests c o nducted, nu mbe r of pos itive tests . and nu mbe r o f peo ple e xhibiting C O V ID -19 sy mpto ms or rece iv ing treatment fo r C O V ID -19 on a daily bas is to the Lo uis iana D e partme nt of Pu blic H e alth, w hic h w ill the n make ano ny mize d data av ailable to the pu blic ; M andate that the D O C , O J J, and lo cal jails use all rele ase mec hanis ms av ailable to the m du ring states of e me rge ncy ; and C o dify alte rnatives to inc arceratio n that c an be us ed during times o f e me rge ncy w itho ut requ iring increas ed and u nnec essary su rve illance o r financial burde ns . PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 53 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE CONCLUSION “In the end, it will b e imposs ib le to kno w if we o ve rreac ted or did to o mu ch, bu t it will b e qu ite apparent if we u nder reac ted or did to o little.” – L ou is iana Bus iness E me rge ncy O pe ratio ns C e nte r 228 and c aring fo r e ac h o ther w he n the state faile d to c are fo r the m. Indee d, it is c le ar that the state has do ne to o little , and the little they did c ame to o late. D es pite its c ons titutio nal and mo ral o bligations to pro tect those in its c are , the state e xpende d little to no effo rt o n those in its c ustody. E ffo rts by a few we re o ve rw he lmed by co ntempt from the many , resu lting in the de aths of at leas t 31 inc arcerated peo ple ov er a 7 mo nth perio d. x W e c an no lo nge r allo w the e ffe cts o f state w ide dis asters to dispropo rtio nate ly kill inc arcerated peo ple, amo ng w hom ou r B lac k and brow n c o mmu nity me mbers are v astly o ve rre pres ente d after ge neratio ns of racial v iolence and o ppress io n. We must be ar w itness to the ir s uffering and the ir loss es s ince the o nset of the pandemic, and w e must de mand that this nev er happen again. In these difficu lt times, peo ple detained and inc arce rate d ac ross L ou is iana hav e pro ve n a stre ngth and c ompass io n that o u r state and loc al gov ernme nts have be en lac king. They hav e s ho wn us w hat mutual aid lo oks like behind bars , organiz ing c le aning c rews , making mas ks, x As of December 4, 2020, the Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections’ tracking website was reporting 2,588 total positive cases and 31 deaths among incarcerated people, and 600 total positives and 5 deaths among staff members. COVID-19 Inmate Positives, LA. DEP’T OF CORRECTIONS, https://doc.louisiana.gov/doc-covid-19-testing/. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 54 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE APPENDIX A: DEVELOPMENTS IN ADDITIONAL STATE FACILITIES T he first c onfirme d c ase at A lle n C o rrec tio nal C e nte r w as arou nd J uly 2. T ho ugh the e ntire do rm was quarantine d and e ve ry one w as re qu ire d to we ar masks , there we re betwe en 10 0 and 20 0 pe o ple in qu arantine by late Ju ly. R ay bu rn C o rrectio nal C ente r w as o ne o f the first to re po rt c o nfirme d pos itive c ases, w ith five pos itiv e c ases by A pril 2. 229 T he re we re sev entee n cas es less than tw o wee ks late r. T he re w as no s oc ial dis tanc ing, minimal cleaning su pplies, and infreque nt use o f PPE . 230 D ange rous c onditions in R ay bu rn C o rrectio nal C ente r we re highlighted in late A pril du ring a fe de ral co urt c ase . T hou gh he did not be lieve he w as in a pos ition to o rder individu al rele ases , U .S . D istric t Ju dge Brian J ac ks on w rote that o ffic ials “have appare ntly disre garde d the impo rtance o f s oc ial distanc ing in pre ve nting the spre ad of this u nique diseas e.”231 Incarc erate d individu al C hris to phe r M arlow e file d a re quest fo r re leas e in A pril, c iting his pre -e xisting c o nditio ns and the fac ility’s lac k o f a plan fo r c o mbating the c o ro nav irus. 232 In M arlowe ’s c o mplaint he alle ge d a c o mplete lack of so c ial distanc ing, sanitary su pplies , or hy gienic me asu res. T he s pre ad c o ntinue d into the su mme r. 233 A nother individu al reached out to PJI in e arly M ay , s ay ing: “I told the warden ab out our c onc erns and he jus t laug he d. I’m so hurt b ecaus e I fe el like my safe ty is n’t a co nc ern to them. So I have to protec t mys e lf. I’ve made the dec ision to stop a much ne eded tre atment until this p ande mic is ove r to p ro te ct mys e lf. I fe el what’s impo rtant to me is n’t important to the adminis tratio n”. O n Ju ne 12, there we re fo rtyfive pos itiv e c ases , and se ve ral u nits in the pris o n were o n loc kdow n. Pe o ple we re not e ve n be ing brou ght out of the ir do rms to e at o r make le gal c alls. O n A ugus t 21, the D O C annou nce d E dward “D us ty ” B ic kham w ou ld take ov er as the new warde n after leav ing his inte rim pos itio n as O JJ de puty se cretary . 234 T he w arde n and the me dical dire ctor of R ay mond L abo rde PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 55 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE C o rrectional C enter we re amo ng the first de aths re lated to the s pre ad o f c o ronav irus in L ou is iana pris ons . 235 B ut there we re s igns o f the c o ro nav irus e ve n e arlie r. T he re was a flu o utbreak in the third w ee k of M arc h, thou gh incarc erate d pe ople were co nc erne d that it c ou ld be C O V ID -19. A c co rding to re ports fro m those ins ide , inc arcerated peo ple w ere told in late M arc h that the re we re e ight co nfirme d cases and no tice d a sudde n decreas e in staffing lev els. M ultiple pe ople we re re mo ve d fro m their do rms bec ause they had C O V ID - 19 in the first w ee k o f A pril. G u ards began wearing glo ves and masks , but no inc arcerated pe ople were pro vide d glo ves o r masks . They be gan to take e ve ry one’s te mpe rature, but o nly res po nded to s ic k c all requests that inv olve d a life threate ning emerge nc y. A t E lay n H u nt C o rrec tio nal C enter, inc arce rate d pe ople w o rking fo r Pris o n E nterpris es we re tas ked w ith making hand s anitize r us ing do nated su pplies fro m E xxo nM o bil and othe r manu factu re rs. 236 H owev er, the o ve r 14, 00 0 bottles o f hand s anitize r that had be en made by A pril 2 were not use d to pre ve nt the spre ad of C O V ID -19 w ithin the pris on, but rathe r to be s hippe d out e lsew he re. 237 A t the s ame time this hand sanitize r w as be ing made by those inc arcerated, the pris on w as se nding pe o ple to be qu arantined as e arly as M arc h 19, acc ording to re po rts made to PJI. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 56 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE APPENDIX B: DEVELOPMENTS IN ADDITIONAL LOCAL FACILITIES F ranklin P aris h D ete ntio n C ente r is loc ate d in Winns bo ro, L ou is iana and le d by Warde n C had L ee. 238 O n M arc h 24 there we re no repo rte d cas es w ithin the paris h, but this c hange d qu ic kly, w ith three pos itiv e c ases repo rte d the ne xt day. 239 In A pril, F ranklin P arish D etentio n C e nte r be gan taking me asu res to slow the s pre ad of c o ro nav irus by se nding 10 infe cte d indiv iduals to C amp J in A ngo la. 240 O ne man inc arcerated at the dete ntion c enter e xpress ed c o nce rn about ho w the fac ility was handling the v irus: “…inte ntio nal ne glec t is unnec essarily e xp osing me to the risk of contracting the virus which may result in death due to me b eing an (1) diab e tic (2) [having ] as thma (3) [and having] he patitis C and I als o have a me ntal he alth prob le m.” In M ay , the F ranklin S he riff’s O ffic e partne re d w ith the C enters fo r D ise ase C o ntro l in an “effort to unde rstand v irus c o ntro l in c orrec tio nal settings.”241 E v en afte r this partne rship, a man w ro te to us in Ju ly pleading fo r help and s ay ing “[t]he v irus is still s pre ading be cause they hav e us mixed u p and do n’t give us [no ] me dic ines at all…” In e arly A pril, in N atc hitoc hes D etentio n C e nte r, detaine d pe ople were give n o ne bar of s oap ev ery other we e k and had no acc ess to hand s anitize r. P eo ple in the fac ility we re almost entire ly c onfined to the ir do rms, leaving o nly fo r s ic k c alls o r infre que ntly w he n the do rms were cle ane d. S ic k pe ople were not re mov ed from the do rms, o ffic ers did not we ar masks , no me dic al staff w ere sc re ening fo r sy mpto ms, and they we re not give n any way to s oc ial distance . B y M ay, they we re rece iving two masks per we e k but the fac ility had made no othe r c hanges . A pers o n detained at the St. T ammany J ail re ported that as o f A pril 2, the o nly pre cautio n staff w ere taking was distributing s oap and a bu cket o f so apy water fo r the flo o r e ac h day. She repo rte d that the jail fe lt c haotic and as if no o ne w as in c harge. T he jail re po rte d its first co nfirme d positive c ase o n A pril 17 , at w hic h point other PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 57 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE pe ople were alre ady e xhibiting sy mpto ms. 242 In mid- A pril, the T angipahoa P arish J ail s till had not take n any me asu res to protect detained peo ple bey o nd sus pe nding co ntac t v is its . R ive rbend D ete ntio n C enter repo rte d so me of the highes t rates in the state . There w as no hand s anitiz er, s o ap, o r mas ks. In a do rm of 180 detained pe ople, 130 had teste d pos itiv e in late Ju ne . The pe o ple w ho had tested pos itiv e w ere not be ing separate d fro m those w ho had not. S ic k pe o ple we re to ld to re turn to be d and we re not permitte d to take s howe rs. M any of these pe o ple had rece ntly be en e xpose d to c arbo n mo no xide re pe ate dly after there w ere leaks in the jail. E xpos ure to carbo n mo noxide o ve r long pe riods of time is asso c iated w ith he art dise ase , 243 w hic h in turn is like ly to inc reas e ris k of se vere o r fatal C O V ID -19 sy mpto ms. In the first few days o f A pril, a pers o n inc arce rate d at St. C harles N els o n C o le man C o rrectional C enter repo rte d that office rs we re re fus ing to we ar mas ks. W he n inc arcerated pe ople re ported this dange ro us be hav io r, the o ffic ers retaliate d by c onfisc ating their cleaning su pplies. A s te ns io ns incre ase d betw een inc arcerated peo ple w ho w ante d the pris o n to take bas ic prote ctiv e me asu res and o ffice rs w ho re fuse d to do the bare minimu m, it fe lt like a “po [w ]de r ke g waiting to go o ff….” In the las t w ee k of Ju ly, the re was a large outbreak at the fac ility. O v er fifty de taine d pe ople had tes te d pos itive in the jail as o f J uly 29. It is likely that hu ndreds o f de taine d pe ople were actually infec te d bec ause the jail w as o nly tes ting s y mpto matic pe o ple , and up to 8 0 pe rce nt of c o ro nav irus c ases are mild o r asy mpto matic . 244 B y mid-A ugus t, 196 o f the 406 peo ple inc arcerated the re had c o ntracte d C O V ID -19. O ffic ials belie ve the v iru s s pread throu gh asy mpto matic indiv idu als c o ming to the fac ility afte r the ir arrest, pro mpting sc ree ning proc edures at arres t to be rampe d u p. 245 By the e nd of A u gus t, St. C harles P aris h s he riff G re g C hampagne s aid the s itu ation had mu c h improve d w ith new testing protoc ols , with only fiv e pos itive c ases, all of which we re qu arantined together. 246 PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 58 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE ENDNOTES 1 Rita Rubin, The Challenge of Preventing COVID-19 Spread in Correctional Facilities, JAMA MEDICAL NEWS & PERSPECTIVES (Apr. 7, 2020), https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle /2764379. 2 Andrea Armstrong, Editorial, COVID-19 Infections in the Prison System Concern Us All, LA. ILLUMINATOR (July 12, 2020), https://lailluminator.com/2020/07/12/covid-19infections-in-the-prison-system-concern-us-all/; Brendan Saloner et al., COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in Federal and State Prisons, JAMA MEDICAL NEWS & PERSPECTIVES (July 8, 2020), https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle /2768249. 3 Alex Greer, Louisiana is No. 1 in U.S. for prisoner deaths, NOLA.COM (updated July 19, 2019), https://www.nola.com/entertainment_life/health_f itness/article_59d47aff-8408-5972-8d62b71f4238e155.html#:~:text=1%20in%20U.S.%20fo r%20prisoner%20deaths,NOLA.com%20%7C%20The&text=The%20United %20States%20has%20the,the%20Bureau%20of%2 0Justice%20Statistics. 4 Matt McKillop, Prison Health Care Spending Varies Dramatically by State, PEW (Dec. 15, 2017), https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-andanalysis/articles/2017/12/15/prison-health-carespending-varies-dramatically-by-state. 5 Gordon Russell and Sam Karlin, Coronavirus disparity in Louisiana: About 70% of the victims are black, but why?, NOLA.COM (Apr. 6, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_d 804d410-7852-11ea-ac6d-470ebb61c694.html. Black Louisianans comprise around one-third of the general population, but 67.5% of the state prison population is Black. Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections Briefing Book (July https://s32082.pcdn.co/wp2020), content/uploads/2020/08/Full-BB-Jul-20.pdf; United States Census Bureau, Quick Facts Louisiana (July 1, 2019) https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/LA. 6 Samantha Springfloat, Louisiana Health Disparities (2018), https://www.arcgis.com/apps/Cascade/index.html ?appid=9ea2ab95c9a74c419b5364c6796716cf. 7 Matt Sledge, New Orleans Jail Staffer Tests Positive for Coronavirus, Raising Fears About Further Spread, NOLA.COM (Mar. 21, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_d 30c370a-6baf-11ea-ab1e-07aab6f88674.html. 8 Tweet from VOTE. 9 Matt Sledge, Two Louisiana Prison Staffers, Including Angola Employee, Test Positive for Coronavirus, NOLA.COM (Mar. 26, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_e 947332a-6f70-11ea-83bf-8fb78c8ff09c.html. 10 Matt Sledge, 3 Youths in Louisiana Custody Test Positive for Coronavirus, NOLA.COM (Mar. 27, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_1 6c1aa6e-7044-11ea-b054-8bc33633446b.html. 11 Lea Skene, Avoyelles Prison Warden Tests Positive for Coronavirus, Under Quarantine, THE ADVOCATE (Mar. 27, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_2c8b1d96-7074-11ea-8eb757170ff59a6d.html. 12 Jacqueline Derobertis, Louisiana State Prison Inmate Tests Positive for Coronavirus; 1st Confirmed Case at a State Facility, THE ADVOCATE (Mar. 28, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_67ac4350-716e-11ea-8cb56bee98b98550.html. 13 Rachel Thomas, Nick Germillion, & Kiran Chawla, 2 EBR Inmates Test Positive for COVID-19; Wing of Prison Quarantined, WAFB (Mar. 30, 2020), https://www.wafb.com/2020/03/31/ebr-inmatetests-positive-covid-after-reported-drugoverdose-wing-prison-quarantined/. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 59 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 14 Lea Skene, Inmates at Two Louisiana State Prisons Have Tested Positive for Coronavirus, THE ADVOCATE (Apr. 1, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_038231d6-7458-11ea-ab41db912b7d629f.html. 15 Letter from Louisiana organizations to Governor Edwards (Mar. 16, 2020), https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/coali tion_letter_to_governor_edwards_re_covid_19_pre vention_and_protection_in_louisiana_facilities.pdf. 16 Faith Leaders Across Louisiana Urge Governor to Use Emergency Powers for Release of Detainees, WGNO (Apr. 9, 2020), https://wgno.com/news/faith-leaders-acrosslouisiana-urge-governor-to-use-emergencypowers-for-release-of-detainees/. 17 DOC Confirms Angola Staff Member Died from COVID-19-related Complications, WAFB (Apr. 10, https://www.wafb.com/2020/04/10/doc2020), confirms-angola-staff-member-died-covidrelated-complications/. 18 Inmate at Louisiana State Penitentiary Succumbs to COVID-19, WBRZ (Apr. 20, 2020), https://www.wbrz.com/news/inmate-at-louisianastate-penitentiary-succumbs-to-covid-19/. 19 Lea Skene, Coronavirus Hits Louisiana Prisons: Medical director, head warden, first state inmate die, THE ADVOCATE (Apr. 20, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_697c5eb6-8354-11ea-a2059726a420e972.html. 20 Sledge, supra note 7. 21 Keri Blakinger & Keegan Hamilton, “I Begged Them to Let Me Die”: How Federal Prisons Became Coronavirus Death Traps, MARSHALL PROJECT (June 18, 2020), https://www.themarshallproject.org/2020/06/18/i -begged-them-to-let-me-die-how-federal-prisonsbecame-coronavirus-death-traps. 22 Sarah Turberville & Katherine Hawkins, Pretrial Detention in a Pandemic, POGO (June 23, 2020), https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2020/06/pretrialdetention-in-a-pandemic/; Tom Jawetz & Nicole Prchal Svajlenka, Data on the Coronavirus Outbreak in Immigration Detention Offer More Questions than Answers, CTR. FOR AMERICAN PROGRESS (June 16, 2020), https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigra tion/news/2020/06/16/486338/data-coronavirusoutbreak-immigration-detention-offer-questionsanswers/. 23 Blakinger, supra note 21. 24 Kimberly Kindy, An Explosion of Coronavirus Cases Cripples a Federal Prison in Louisiana, WASH. POST (Mar. 29, 2020), https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/anexplosion-of-coronavirus-cases-cripples-afederal-prison-inlouisiana/2020/03/29/75a465c0-71d5-11ea85cb-8670579b863d_story.html. 25 Id. 26 Joseph Neff and Keri Blakinger, Federal Prison Agency “Put Staff in Harm’s Way” of Coronavirus, MARSHALL PROJECT (Apr. 3, 2020), https://www.themarshallproject.org/2020/04/03/f ederal-prisons-agency-put-staff-in-harm-s-wayof-coronavirus. 27 Janet Reitman, Something is Going to Explode: When Coronavirus Strikes a Prison, NEW YORK TIMES (Apr. 28, 2020), https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/18/magazine/ oakdale-federal-prison-coronavirus.html. 28 Id. 29 Id. 30 Id. 31 Kindy, supra note 24. 32 Reitman, supra note 27. 33 Sarah N. Lynch, Second Inmate at Louisiana’s Oakdale Prison Dies from Coronavirus Illness, Official Says, U.S. NEWS (Apr. 1, 2020); Louisiana COVID-19 in Detention, World Peace Foundation (June 12, 2020), https://sites.tufts.edu/wpf/louisiana-covid19-in-detention/. 34 Neff, supra note 26. 35 Reitman, supra note 27. 36 Sarah N. Lynch, Third Inmate at Louisiana’s Oakdale Prison Has Died From Coronavirus: Official, PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 60 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT (Apr. 1, 2020), https://www.usnews.com/news/us/articles/202004-01/second-inmate-at-louisianas-oakdaleprison-has-died-of-covid-19-official-says. 37 Neff, supra note 26. 38 Sadie Gurman et al., Coronavirus puts a Prison Under Siege, WALL ST. J. (Apr. 6, 2020), https://www.wsj.com/articles/inside-oakdaleprison-our-sentences-have-turned-into-deathsentences-11586191030. 39 Michael Balsamo, Federal Prison Left Inmates with Virus in Housing for a Week, AP NEWS (Nov. 17, 2020), https://apnews.com/article/politics-healthprisons-louisiana-coronavirus-pandemic95dbb1d1c432fb11ddfb0945fde002a3. 40 Matt Sledge, Federal Inmate Advocates Plead for Releases in face of four Deaths at Oakdale Prison, NOLA.COM (Apr. 1, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_d 3da9994-744f-11ea-8e3c9bf837415977.amp.html; Gurman, supra note 38. 41 Kimberly Kindy, Inside the deadliest federal prison, the seeping coronavirus creates fear and danger, WASH. POST (Apr. 10, 2020), https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/insidethe-deadliest-federal-prison-the-seepingcoronavirus-creates-fear-anddanger/2020/04/09/deeceb6e-75b4-11ea-a9bd9f8b593300d0_story.html. 42 Kevin Johnson, Coronavirus Outbreak: Hundreds of Infected, Quarantined Inmates in Prisons and Jails Challenging Officials, USA TODAY (Apr. 9, 2020), https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/20 20/04/09/coronavirus-hits-workers-inmates-jailsprisons-threatened/2968807001/. 43 Reitman, supra note 27. 44 Id. 45 Id. 46 Livas v. Myers, 1:20-cv-00422 (W.D. La. Apr. 6, 2020). 47 Mem. in Support of Petitioners’ Emergency Motion for Release of Vulnerable and Low-Risk Prisoners from Oakdale, Livas v. Myers, 1:20-cv00422 (W.D. La. Apr. 13, 2020), available at https://clearinghouse.net/chDocs/public/PC-LA0019-0004.pdf. 48 Reitman, supra note 27. 49 Id. 50 Bill Hutchinson, Jammed together like sardines: ACLU seeks restraining order against feds to avoid COVID-19 prison outbreak horror, ABC NEWS (Apr. 13, 2020) https://abcnews.go.com/US/jammedsardines-aclu-seeks-restraining-order-fedsavoid/story?id=70117636. 51 Id. 52 Keri Blakinger and Joseph Neff, Thousands of Sick Federal Prisoners Sought Compassionate Release. 98 Percent Were Denied., MARSHALL PROJECT (Oct. 7, 2020), https://www.themarshallproject.org/2020/10/07/t housands-of-sick-federal-prisoners-soughtcompassionate-release-98-percent-were-denied. 53 Nicholas Chrastil, Oakdale Inmate dies from COVID-19 two days after Scheduled Release, LENS NOLA (May 12, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/05/12/oakdaleinmate-dies-from-covid-19-two-days-afterscheduled-release/. 54 Id. 55 Id. 56 Josh Gerstein, Virus-Wracked Federal Prisons Again Expand Release Criteria, POLITICO (Apr. 11, 2020), https://www.politico.com/news/2020/04/11/feder al-prison-release-criteria-coronavirus-179835. 57 Sadie Gurman, Warden at Prison Besieged by Coronavirus is Reassigned, WALL ST. J. (May 22, 2020), https://www.wsj.com/amp/articles/warden-atprison-besieged-by-coronavirus-is-reassigned11590189740. 58 Id.; Rachel Penton, Bureau of Prisons removed Rod Myers as warden of Federal Correctional Intitution in Oakdale, KALB (May 22, 2020), https://www.kalb.com/content/news/Bureau-ofPrisons-removes-Rod-Myers-as-warden-ofOakdale-Correctional-Institute-570701811.html. 59 Nicholas Chrastil, Oakdale Federal Prison Resumes and Expands COVID-19 Testing, LENS NOLA (May 18, 2020), PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 61 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 74 https://thelensnola.org/2020/05/18/oakdalefederal-prison-resumes-and-expands-covid-19testing/. 60 Id. 61 Alan Gomez, Maria Clark, and Rebecca Plevin, ‘Terrified of Dying’: Immigrants beg to be Released from Immigration Detention as Coronavirus Spreads, USA TODAY (Apr. 7, 2020), https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/202 0/04/07/covid-19-hits-ice-detention-migrantssay-they-cant-clean-stay-safe/2953170001/. 62 Matthew Segura, ICE: Detainee dies at Richwood Correctional Center, KNOE (Oct. 16, 2019), https://www.knoe.com/content/news/ICEDetainee-dies-at-Richwood-Correctional-Center563233822.html. 63 Gomez, supra note 61. 64 Noah Lanard, The Women Asked ICE for Soap. They Got Pepper-Sprayed Instead., MOTHER JONES (Apr. 22, 2020), https://www.motherjones.com/coronavirusupdates/2020/04/ice-pepper-spray-lasalle/ (providing stories from the women in their own words). 65 Matt Clarke, LaSalle Corrections: A Family-Run Prison Firm, PRISON LEGAL NEWS (Feb. 15, 2013), https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2013/feb/ 15/lasalle-corrections-a-family-run-prison-firm/. 66 Noah Lanard, ICE Detainees Terrified of the Coronavirus Wanted to be Deported. Guards PepperSprayed Them, MOTHER JONES (Apr. 23, 2020), https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2020/04/ic e-detainees-terrified-of-the-coronavirus-wantedto-be-deported-guards-pepper-sprayed-them/. 67 Id. 68 Id. 69 Id. 70 Noah Lanard, “Don’t Give Up”: A Woman’s Fight to Save Her Brother From a COVID-Plagued ICE Jail, MOTHER JONES (June 15, 2020), https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2020/06/c ovid-ice-jail-immigration-detention/. 71 Id. 72 Id. 73 Id. Complaint, Gumns v. Edwards, No. 3:20-cv-00231 at 98–99 (M.D. La. Apr. 14, 2020). 75 Kiran Chawla, Dept. of Corrections Taking Steps to Minimize Spread of COVID-19 in Prisons, WAFB (Apr. 7, 2020), https://www.wafb.com/2020/04/07/deptcorrections-taking-steps-minimize-spread-covidprisons/. 76 Tana Ganeva, Report from Inside Angola Prison Paints a Troubling Picture as Coronavirus Grips Louisiana, THE APPEAL (Apr. 10, 2020), https://theappeal.org/report-from-inside-angolaprison-paints-a-troubling-picture-as-coronavirusgrips-louisiana/. 77 COVID-19 Inmate Positives, Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections, https://web.archive.org/web/20201001041646/htt ps://doc.louisiana.gov/doc-covid-19-testing/ (last visited Dec. 8, 2020). 78 Nicholas Chrastil, Louisiana Prison Medical Director Steps Down, LENS NOLA (Apr. 17, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/04/17/louisianaprison-medical-director-steps-down/. 79 Cindy Chang, Many doctors treating state’s prisoners have disciplinary records themselves, TIMESPICAYUNE (Jul. 29, 2012), https://www.nola.com/news/crime_police/article_ 98a136d7-c201-5b55-a7f5-5428b4be1439.html. 80 Jacqueline Derobertis, Louisiana State Prison Inmate Tests Positive for Coronavirus; 1st Confirmed Case at a State Facility, THE ADVOCATE (Mar. 28, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_67ac4350-716e-11ea-8cb56bee98b98550.html. 81 Daryl Khan, Desperate Louisiana Prisoners Say Wardens, Staff Not Following Coronavirus Rules, JJIE (Apr. 27, 2020), https://jjie.org/2020/04/27/desperate-louisianaprisoners-say-wardens-staff-not-followingcoronavirus-rules/. 82 Id. 83 Id. 84 Anat Rubin et al., Inside the U.S.’s Largest Maximum-Security Prison, COVID-19 Raged. Outside, PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 62 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 105 Officials Called Their Fight a Success, PROPUBLICA (June 24, 2020), https://www.propublica.org/article/inside-the-usslargest-maximum-security-prison-covid-19-raged. 85 Id. 86 Id. 87 Id. 88 Id. 89 Id. 90 Id. 91 Id. 92 Id. 93 Id. 94 Id. 95 Id. 96 Id. 97 Id. 98 Id. 99 Alie Brussel Faria, MOURNING OUR LOSSES, https://www.mourningourlosses.org/memorials/mi chael-williams?rq=louisiana. 100 Lea Skene, After Louisiana Women’s Prison Flooded in 2016, Temporary Dorms Inundated with Coronavirus, THE ADVOCATE (June 7, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_ed45ea90-a696-11ea-a89d8b66acee5f8f.html. 101 Krystin Roehl and Jesse Kelley, Incarcerated Women: Forgotten Victims of COVID-19, THE CRIME REPORT (June 19, 2020), https://thecrimereport.org/2020/06/19/incarcerat ed-women-forgotten-victims-of-covid-19/. 102 Lea Skene, Louisiana’s Longest Serving Female Inmate Hospitalized with Coronavirus While Clemency Request Stalls, THE ADVOCATE (Apr. 22, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_d60d1896-84de-11ea-a373a734e11b21f8.html. 103 Id. 104 Anaheed Mobaraki, MOURNING OUR LOSSES, https://www.mourningourlosses.org/memorials/do rothy-pierre?rq=louisiana. Nicholas Chrastil, COVID-19 Death Reported at Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women, THE LENS (Apr. 24, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/04/24/covid-19death-reported-at-louisiana-correctionalinstitute-for-women/. 106 Mobaraki, supra note 104. 107 Chrastil, supra note 105. 108 Id. 109 Associated Press, Nearly Entire Dorm at Elayn Hunt Tests Positive for Virus, WBRZ (May 5, 2020), https://www.wbrz.com/news/nearly-entirelouisiana-prison-dorm-at-elayn-hunt-testspositive-forvirus?fbclid=IwAR2qU5O8gIDnQAKXpfJIcno3Tynw2XzBgslOMtf5QwnY1qho4Mt3u2gud0 . 110 Id. 111 Lea Skene, After Flooding, Women’s Prison Dorms Inundated with Coronavirus, THE ADVOCATE (June 8, 2020), https://www.govtech.com/em/safety/AfterFlooding-Womens-Prison-Dorms-Inundated-withCoronavirus.html. 112 Id. 113 Id. 114 Id. 115 Id. 116 Id. 117 Victoria Law, Louisiana’s Longest Serving Incarcerated Woman Returned to Prison After Being Hospitalized for COVID-19, THE APPEAL (May 14, 2020), https://theappeal.org/louisianas-longestserving-incarcerated-woman-returned-to-prisonafter-being-hospitalized-for-covid-19/. 118 Lea Skene, Coronavirus Deaths in Louisiana Prisons Include Woman, Age 47, Convicted of Drug Possession, THE ADVOCATE (May 13, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_4472783e-9552-11ea-bd877ffb01b0d790.html. 119 Id. 120 COVID-19 Inmate Positives, supra note 77. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 63 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 130 121 Gov. Edwards Names Acting Deputy Secretary for the Office of Juvenile Justice, OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR (Mar. 25, 2020), https://gov.louisiana.gov/index.cfm/newsroom/det ail/2434. 122 The Associated Press, Louisiana names new leader of juvenile justice department, THE ADVOCATE (Mar. 26, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ politics/article_741c882e-6f9e-11ea-b95787ea5616a441.html. 123 Gov. Edwards Appoints a New Deputy Secretary to the Office of Juvenile Justice, OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR (Aug. 7, 2020), https://gov.louisiana.gov/index.cfm/newsroom/det ail/2629#:~:text=John%20Bel%20Edwards%20ann ounced%20the,Louisiana%20Office%20of%20Juve nile%20Justice. 124 Complaint, J.H. v. Edwards, No. 3:20-cv-00293 at 30 (M.D. La. May 14, 2020). 125 Id. at 21. 126 Shannon Barbour, Life Is Excruciating Enough for Mothers of Incarcerated Children. The Pandemic Makes It Impossible: Three Louisiana mothers explain why they’re suing the Office of Juvenile Justice and how they’re surviving in the meantime, COSMOPOLITAN (Aug. 25, 2020), https://www.cosmopolitan.com/politics/a3363721 1/incarcerated-children-pandemic-covid/. 127 J.H. v. Edwards, No. 3:20-cv-00293 (M.D. La. May 14, 2020). 128 Id. at 25–26. 129 Matt Sledge, Free youths from prisons during coronavirus pandemic, advocates say in lawsuit, NOLA.COM (May 14, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_8 a3bea1e-962c-11ea-9198-2f3fec2ba861.html; Tyler Kingkade, Louisiana parents sue to get children out of juvenile detention as coronavirus spreads, NBC NEWS (May 14, 2020), https://www.nbcnews.com/news/usnews/louisiana-parents-sue-get-children-outjuvenile-detention-coronavirus-spreadsn1207196. Sledge, supra note 129. Matt Sledge, Federal judge denies request to free Louisiana youth prisoners because of coronavirus outbreak, NOLA.COM (July 4, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_5 cb01eac-bcb1-11ea-abbd-e77f8359a275.html. 132 Id. 133 Barbour, supra note 126. 134 OJJ COVID-19 Information, OFFICE OF JUVENILE JUSTICE, https://ojj.la.gov/ojj-covid-19-information/ (last visited Dec. 8, 2020). 135 Lea Skene, Latest coronavirus outbreak behind bars is at Louisiana prison that holds dialysis patients, THE ADVOCATE (Aug. 28, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_97b922b4-e97a-11ea-8cda3f8a9b007a06.html. 136 Id. 137 Local Jails: The real scandal is the churn, PRISON POLICY INITIATIVE, https://www.prisonpolicy.org/graphs/pie2019_jail_ churn.html. 138 JUNE LA. COVID-19 HEALTH EQUITY TASK FORCE REPORT 8 (June 2020), available at https://www.sus.edu/assets/sus/LAHealthEquityTa skForce/June-COVID-Task-Force-SubcommitteeReports.pdf?fbclid=IwAR00GlvB8HrmW_Lo1YQoyF a0SfV9o-B3uAINdJ9dRdfGj3LnyUQHsH0jbyI. 139 Briefing Book, supra note 5, at 18. 140 Nicholas Chrastil, After Expanded Testing, New Orleans Jail Sees Spike in Confirmed Coronavirus Cases, LENS NOLA (Apr. 22, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/04/22/afterexpanded-testing-new-orleans-jail-sees-spike-inconfirmed-coronavirus-cases/. 141 Id. 142 Id. 143 Matt Sledge, Second New Orleans Deputy, Veteran Supervisor at Jail, Dies from Coronavirus, NOLA.COM (Apr. 29, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_1 53a8622-8a5a-11ea-a967-bb37cb15f245.html; Matt Sledge, First New Orleans Deputy to Die of Coronavirus was ‘One to Open her Home’, NOLA.COM 131 PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 64 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE (Apr. 28, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_7 5765212-8999-11ea-a54f-bb8d7c855c61.html/. 144 Nicholas Chrastil, Public Defenders Request the Release of All Non-Violent Offenders in Jail due to Coronavirus, LENS NOLA (Mar. 12, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/03/12/publicdefenders-request-the-release-of-all-non-violentoffenders-in-jail-due-to-coronavirus/. 145 Richard A. Webster et al., New Orleans police are jailing people for minor offenses even as the city becomes a covid-19 hotspot, WASH. POST (Mar. 31, 2020), https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/n ew-orleans-police-are-jailing-people-for-minoroffenses-even-as-the-city-becomes-a-covid-19hotspot/2020/03/31/e2183dd8-71eb-11ea-85cb8670579b863d_story.html. 146 Mark Stern, New Orleans Prosecutors Argue the Coronavirus is a Reason to Keep People in Jail, SLATE (Mar. 18, 2020), https://slate.com/news-andpolitics/2020/03/new-orleans-prosecutors-jailcoronavirus.html. 147 Sarah Stillman, Will The Coronavirus Make Us Rethink Mass Incarceration?, THE NEW YORKER (May 18, 2020) https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/05/2 5/will-the-coronavirus-make-us-rethink-massincarceration. 148 Nicholas Chrastil, Amid Coronavirus Fears, Public Defenders Petition Judges to Order Release of HighRisk Inmates; Sheriff Joins in Call for More Releases, LENS NOLA (Mar. 25, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/03/25/publicdefenders-office-petitions-judges-to-orderrelease-of-inmates-at-high-risk-of-complicationsdeath-from-coronavirus/. 149 Matt Sledge and Lea Skene, As Death Count Grows, Louisiana Prisons and Jails Grapple with Coronavirus Spread, NOLA.COM (Apr. 25, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_a 261bbb8-8728-11ea-9a1f-6bc823fbe5db.html. 150 Nicholas Chrastil, Detainees in New Orleans, Stuck in Jail on Parole Holds, Struggle to Find Legal Recourse, LENS NOLA (Apr. 16, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/04/16/detainees-innew-orleans-stuck-in-jail-on-parole-holdsstruggle-to-find-legal-recourse/. 151 Id. 152 Matt Sledge, Coronavirus Cases Spike at New Orleans Jail, Raising Advocates’ Fears About New Outbreak, NOLA.COM (May 20, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_a 59d376e-9aef-11ea-996d-276b5a323e8d.html. 153 Charles Maldonado, Sheriff’s Office: No positive COVID-19 cases among inmates in city jail, THE LENS (June 18, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/06/18/sheriffsoffice-no-positive-covid-19-cases-amonginmates-in-city-jail/. 154 Matt Sledge, Young Father who Died at New Orleans Jail was Positive for Coronavirus, Coroner Says, NOLA.COM (June 30, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/crime_police/article_ e13c90a4-bae2-11ea-9c75-c30d303fc35b.html. 155 Id. 156 Matt Sledge, Coronavirus jail will cost $9.3 million under Orleans Sheriff Marlin Gusman’s plan FEMA says, NOLA.COM (Aug. 14, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_0 7824efe-de45-11ea-be74-6b982381afb1.html. 157 Id. 158 Paul Braun, Louisiana Considers Early Release of Some Inmates Among Measures to Reduce COVID-19 Outbreak, WWNO (Mar. 17, 2020), https://www.wwno.org/post/louisiana-considersearly-release-some-inmates-among-measuresreduce-covid-19-outbreak. 159 East Baton Rouge Prison quarantining 94 inmates after one tests positive for COVID-19, WBRZ (Mar. 30, 2020), https://www.wbrz.com/news/east-batonrouge-prison-quarantining-94-inmates-after-onetests-positive-for-covid-19/. 160 Lea Skene, Number of Coronavirus Cases Among Baton Rouge Jail Inmates Climbs to 53, Sheriff’s Office Says, THE ADVOCATE (Apr. 16, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 65 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE coronavirus/article_49eca0e4-8028-11ea-8a5aab5bc7534c4c.html. 161 Id. 162 Lea Skene, Baton Rouge Jail Population Hits 10Year Low Amid Efforts to Combat Coronavirus Spread, The ADVOCATE (Mar. 23, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_7fb7e6f2-6d5e-11ea-b88397717b9dfbce.html. 163 Amended Class Action Complaint, Belton, Jr. v. Gautreaux, No. 3:20-cv-000278 ¶ 5 (M.D. La. May 26, 2020). 164 Press Release, Center for Constitutional Rights Civil Rights Organizations Sue East Baton Rouge Parish Prison for Immediate Release of Vulnerable People Ahead of Deadly COVID-Spread (May 27, https://ccrjustice.org/home/press2020), center/press-releases/civil-rights-organizationssue-east-baton-rouge-parish-prison. 165 Lea Skene, Lawsuit: Baton Rouge Inmates Seek Release Due to Coronavirus Risk, Potential ‘Death Sentence’, THE ADVOCATE (May 27, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_d972c05c-a055-11ea-979d0fd6b011fa75.html. 166 Debunking the myth of no COVID-19 cases in East Baton Rouge Parish Prison, CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS (Aug. 14, 2020), https://ccrjustice.org/home/blog/2020/08/24/new s-debunking-myth-no-covid-19-cases-east-batonrouge-parish-prison. 167 Civil Rights Organizations Debunk Myths of No COVID-19 Cases in East Baton Rouge Parish Prison, ADVANCEMENT PROJECT (Aug. 19, 2020), https://advancementproject.org/news/civil-rightsorganizations-debunk-myths-of-no-covid-19cases-in-east-baton-rouge-parish-prison/. 168 Ruling and Order, Belton, Jr. v. Gatreaux, No. 3:20000278 (M.D. La. July 3, 2020). 169 See generally Complaint, Gumns v. Edwards, No. 3:20-cv-00231 at 155–71 (M.D. La. Apr. 14, 2020). 170 Id. at 157–59. 171 Brooke Shelby Biggs, Camp J, Red Hats and the Hole: Inside Angola’s three circles of solitary- confinement hell, MOTHER JONES (Mar. 5, 2009), https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2009/03/c amp-j-redhats-and-hole; Victoria Law, Louisiana Prisoners Held in Notorious Isolation Unit are Facing a ‘Slow-Moving Disaster’, THE APPEAL (Apr. 17, 2020), https://theappeal.org/louisiana-prisoners-held-innotorious-isolation-unit-are-facing-a-slowmoving-disaster/. 172 Law, supra note 171. 173 Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities, CDC (Mar. 23, 2020), https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019ncov/community/correction-detention/guidancecorrectional-detention.html; Nicholas Chrastil, The Louisiana Department of Health issued recommendations on how to stop the spread of coronavirus in prisons – then rescinded them, LENS NOLA (Apr. 13, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/04/13/the-louisianadepartment-of-health-issuedrecommendationson-how-to-stop-the-spread-ofcoronavirus-in-prisons-then-rescinded-them/. 174 Emily Lane, Louisiana Plans to House Local and State Inmates with Coronavirus at Angola and Allen Correctional, WDSU (Mar. 27, 2020), https://www.wdsu.com/article/louisiana-plans-tohouse-inmates-with-coronavirus-at-angola-andanother-prison/31960114. 175 Complaint, Gumns v. Edwards, No. 3:20-cv00231, at 124 (M.D. La. Apr. 14, 2020). 176 Id. at 108. 177 Id. at 121, 125–34. 178 Id. at 139, 140. 179 Id. at 145–47. 180 See generally id. 181 Nicholas Chrastil, Lawsuit Filings Reveal New Details About Use of Angola Facility to House Coronavirus Patients, LENS NOLA (May 6, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/05/06/lawsuitfilings-reveal-new-details-about-use-of-angolafacility-to-house-coronavirus-patients/. 182 Id. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 66 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 197 183 Melinda Deslatte, Edwards Worries About Backsliding as Virus Deaths Top 1,000, AP NEWS (Apr. 14, 2020), https://apnews.com/34371f85535d746e0b2fcde8 90a16e93; Kevin Foster, Class Action Lawsuit Filed Over COVID-19 Positive Prisoners Being Brought to Angola, WAFB (Apr. 16, 2020), https://www.wafb.com/2020/04/16/class-actionlawsuit-filed-over-covid-positive-prisoners-beingbrought-angola/. 184 Deslatte, supra note 183. 185 Nicholas Chrastil, DOC to Suspend Prisoner Release Program as State Enters Phase Two of Reopening, LENS NOLA (June 3, 2020), https://thelensnola.org/2020/06/03/doc-tosuspend-prisoner-release-program-as-stateenters-phase-two-of-reopening/. 186 Lea Skene, Panel meant to reduce Louisiana prison population during pandemic has negligible impact — 0.2%, THE ADVOCATE (June 30, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_39acdb9a-ba3e-11ea-ac28df318eb8fe9b.html. 187 Data on file with PJI. 188 H.R. 37, 2020 Second Extraordinary Sess. (La. 2020), https://legis.la.gov/legis/BillInfo.aspx?i=239713. 189 Rosemary Westwood, Q&A: COVID-19 Health Equity Task Force Co-Chair Talks Racial Disparities in Louisiana, WWNO (June 25, 2020), https://www.wwno.org/post/qa-covid-19-healthequity-task-force-co-chair-talks-racial-disparitieslouisiana. 190 JUNE LA. COVID-19 HEALTH EQUITY TASK FORCE REPORT, supra note 138. 191 Id. at 3. 192 AUGUST LA. COVID-19 HEALTH EQUITY TASK FORCE, SUBCOMMITTEE REPORT (Aug. 2020), https://www.sus.edu/assets/LaCOVID/AUGUSTCOVID-Task-Force-Subcommittee-Reports.pdf. 193 Rubin, supra note 84. 194 Id. 195 Id. 196 Id. Id. Sledge, supra note 149. 199 Lester Duhé, Former inmates deliver masks to prisons, jails across Louisiana, WAFB9 (Apr 24, 2020), https://www.wafb.com/2020/04/24/formerinmates-deliver-masks-prisons-jails-acrosslouisiana/; Khan, supra note 81. 200 Rubin, supra note 84. 201 Id. 202 Armstrong, supra note Error! Bookmark not d efined.. 203 Sledge, supra note 149. 204 Id. 205 Khan, supra note 81. 206 Rubin, supra note 84. 207 JUNE LA. COVID-19 HEALTH EQUITY TASK FORCE REPORT, supra note 138, at 7. 208 Rubin, supra note 84. 209 Jerry Iannelli, Video Captures Poor Conditions at Louisiana Poultry Plant Where Prisoners are Sent to Work, THE APPEAL (May 28, 2020), https://theappeal.org/louisiana-poultry-plantprison-labor/. 210 Jerry Iannelli, ‘That Man Can’t Breathe’, THE APPEAL (Apr. 16, 2020), https://theappeal.org/baton-rouge-sheriffchoking/. 211 Id. 212 Iannelli, supra note 209. 213 Id. 214 Rubin, supra note 84. 215 Matt Sledge, Louisiana prisons lag in inmate releases as coronavirus spreads behind bars, NOLA.COM (Mar. 31, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_1 1c54f08-739f-11ea-b290-4b2c1a651506.html. 216 Radley Balko, Opinion, A Judge isn’t Allowing Drug Users to be Released from Jail Because of their ‘Hygiene’, WASH. POST. (Mar. 26, 2020), https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/ 03/26/louisiana-judge-says-drug-users-are-toodirty-be-released-jail/. 217 Id. 218 Id. 198 PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 67 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 219 Stern, supra note 146. Id. 221 NIH Leadership, Why COVID-19 testing is the key to getting back to normal, NAT’L INST. ON AGING (Sept. 4, 2020), https://www.nia.nih.gov/news/whycovid-19-testing-key-getting-back-normal. 222 Julie O’Donoghue, Forty-two percent of Louisiana inmates tested have been positive for COVID-19, LA. ILLUMINATOR (July 12, 2020), https://lailluminator.com/2020/07/12/fortypercent-of-louisiana-inmate-covid-19-tests-arepositive-experts-say-thats-too-high/. 223 Id. 224 COVID-19 Inmate Positives, supra note 77. 225 Henry Njuguna et al., Serial Laboratory Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Incarcerated and Detained Persons in Correctional and Detention Facility—Louisiana, April–May 2020, 69 MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT 836, 836 (July 3, 2020), available at https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/pdfs/ mm6926e2-H.pdf. 226 Id. at 838. 227 Id. 228 LABEOC Message for 03.16.20, LA. BUS. EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CTR. (Mar. 16, 2020), https://www.labeoc.org/alerts/Alert_Details.aspx?i d=1417. 229 COVID-19 Inmate Positives, supra note 77 (PJI has archived data from the DOC’s COVID-19 Inmate Positives web page). 230 Sledge, supra note 149. 231 Id. 232 Tim Ryan, Supreme Court Denies Appeal From Louisiana Inmate Over Coronavirus, Courthouse News Service (May 29, 2020), https://www.courthousenews.com/supreme-courtdenies-appeal-from-louisiana-inmate-overcoronavirus/. 233 Id. 234 Staff Reports, Bickham named new warden at Rayburn Correctional Center, THE DAILY NEWS (Aug. 21, 2020) https://www.bogalusadailynews.com/2020/08/21/ 220 bickham-named-new-warden-at-rayburncorrectional-center/. 235 Skene, supra note 19. 236 Charles Lussier, Louisiana inmates are using donated supplies to make hand sanitizer as coronavirus spreads, THE ADVOCATE (Apr. 2, 2020), https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/ coronavirus/article_98081a40-74ea-11ea-b3672774f5090b74.html. 237 Id. 238 Franklin Parish Detention Center, LA. DEP’T OF PUBLIC SAFETY AND CORRECTIONS, https://doc.louisiana.gov/location/franklin-parishdetention-center/ (last visited Dec. 9, 2020). 239 Ashley Mott, 3 in Franklin Parish test positive for coronavirus, MONROE NEWS STAR (Mar. 25, 2020), https://www.thenewsstar.com/story/news/2020/0 3/25/coronavirus-3-franklin-parish-test-positivecovid-19/5084243002/. 240 Chrastil, supra note 140. 241 Ashley Mott, Half of NELA parishes report 100 or more COVID-19 cases, MONROE NEWS STAR (May 10, 2020), https://www.thenewsstar.com/story/news/2020/0 5/10/half-nela-parishes-report-100-more-covid19-cases/3105665001/. 242 Chris McCrory, Coronavirus Found in St. Tammany Jail, Inmates Quarantined, WWL (Apr. 18, 2020), https://www.wwltv.com/article/news/health/coron avirus/st-tammany-jail-coronavirus/289498ab474-a826-44dd-af20-2dd01caea9e4. 243 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, CDC (Oct. 16, 2016), https://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showCoRisk.action. 244 World Health Org., Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) Situation Report—46 at 2 (Mar. 6, 2020), who.int/docs/defaultsource/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200306sitrep-46-covid-19.pdf. 245 Matt Sledge, Nearly half of St. Charles Parish jail inmates have caught coronavirus, officials say, NOLA.COM (Aug. 11, 2020), https://www.nola.com/news/coronavirus/article_d d2e97c0-dc1e-11ea-b7a9-b71d8c2e03c9.html. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19 68 THE PROMISE OF JUSTICE INITIATIVE 246 Ryan Arena, Prison nearly clear of COVID cases following July outbreak, HERALD GUIDE (Aug. 31, 2020), https://www.heraldguide.com/news/prison- nearly-clear-of-covid-cases-following-julyoutbreak/. PJI | LOCKED IN WITH COVID-19