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Taser Annals of Emergency Medicine Taser Injuries

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nne r! "" II' r. . . . .'


Olll(j"~AL LUI


laser" irlJUfies

Electronic Gun (Taser®) Injuries
The 1l1.'lcrK is ,m electrical weapolJ nseu lor immohilizmicm. 1\vo hundred
civlnccn IUlliems who were ~hot hy police with tI 11Iscr"' for violent or crnni.
J1,1I netiavuu were compared 10 22 similar patients shot hy police with ..iN
Sl'ccillJs. The long-term murbiditv rutc was signijiclmtly dilietent iOf "tuscred" victims (11%) lind for thos« lVitlll"dlel lVouuds (50%) (I' .< .1I5). 'J1",
IIIOJldlily rate was also significantly different between "tasercd" \';clim,,.
(1.4'ru). mHI guwsJwt wound victims (5()I%,,) (p < ,OS). Possi/JIc cOIlJ/JliccltiolJS
assw.:idled with 7lm!fJl. wounds inchuletl ('(JI1I11S;ons. abrasions. atul luccraIlolIS (38 fr.d; mild r}wbdolJ}yo!ysis (l'YuJ; dlld,tcsticllhlf uusion (O.5%J. Although 48% of "tasered" patients requited hospitulization. t,lI Iml oue \\'ih

for a preexisung. injury or toxic or psvcbiattic prohlem. \V~ conclude tlun
Ta.sess» ate relatively safe when compared to shooting with more com'cui 0tlflildl well/Ions. IOulog GI, W"sserberger I, Schlater t BaltlsulnamdlliwJJ S:
lectmnic gUll (1hser-JSI) injuries. Alln Emetg Med lanuary 191:J7;16:7,l7~.f






Taser- [Thomas A Swift's Electric Rifle) guns' have been used by lawen-

Gilly J Ordoq Mil. FACEI'. rAACI
JOll<,ilhan W;j5~efbcIU(:I, MD If\CLP
Ihecdore SClllillet: MO, f-ACS
Sub' antaruam Baku,ubt a' I Ji.,JrUl II I I,

los Angeles, Caulonua


From tile Oeparnueru of Eml:luency
MulhClnc, KinD OIl;W Mcdll~dl CtJllh~"
eUl,j the DlewlJCLA MedlCdl Si,lulIII,
Los Angele:>. CdlllwlHd

Received lor publication J~llllJW y 20. 1£180
Bevrsion received May 27, 19till Accepted
lor pulJllcaholl June 24, 1£186

Address for repnnts: Gary J Of (jog, Mil
fACEI'. fAAC1. Ilox 219. 12021


forccmenr officers for immobilizing violent suspects and those on drugs, es-


pecially PCP [phencyclidine Iphenyl-cycJohexyl-piperidinell. 1 ..\ Simi"rr

Cahfonua 90W)U

AVl~ntl~. l05 AllUelc~,

electric rifles have been used by private citizens for self-protection. The Taser'" gun is used because it is claimed to have the advantage of not pennanently harming the victim, while at the same time immobilizing the victim
and controlling violent behavior.' This prevents injury to others and alleviates the need to use physical force and bullets, which obviously produce
more serious consequences, The Taserv is generally used when there is no
immediate lethal threat to the police or bystanders and when proximity to
and control of the suspect is required. If the suspect presents an immediate

danger to others, such as threatening with a gun or knife, a .38 Special may
be used according to established police protocols.s
The Tase.... is an electrical gun that shoots darts (usually tWO or four] up lU


range of 15 feet. The dans arc connected to the gun by wires that deliver up
lU 5ll,()(Xl vohs 13 mAl to the victim. For maximum effect, the shah should
penetrate lilt: skin where, because of barhs, the dans arc not easily removed
unless the skin is lacerated or ripped open. Immobilization of the vicum
occurs when the trigger of the gun is squeezed and current flows through the
suspect's skin. Due to tetanic contraction of the muscles, the victim usuall y
falls. The trigger can be squeezed as required to maintain unmobilizuuun.
The barbs do not have to penetrate the skin for immobilization; only contact
with the victim's clothing is required, and one barb is usually effective.
After Taser.all immobilization, the victim is physically restrained, the wires
to the dans arc cut, and the victim is taken to the hospital for removal of the
dans, The barb is like a fishhook and requires surgical removal.
f ,The mechanics and ballistic pro~r!ies of the Taser-6' have been di~cusseJ
Vtlly by KoSCOVC,5 but to date no clinical study has shown the df~CllVCI1~SS



and safety of the Taser. ~




We conducted a prospective case study of all patients brought to the emer-

gency department of the King/Drew Medical Center in L<,u; Angeles who had
been shot with a Taser~ gun between July 1980 and December 19M5. Intorma..... ,v,

. I

• • • •'.7.7.7;; •.E.-.'.'M.7.n••II!!!II,.,II.iIiIi~5i_'IIi'.! _ _..,


1115EI1" INJI JIm
Ordog ,,' ~I



FI<;lJHE 1. 1Il\lf'()/fI.~\, n! 'lISt'Ied
/'(1'; ('",.. I \"II" 11 'Ct'" t pill'" cvclt tli 11('
alms('. n \r"I"" 2,J homs, ,'\' "i,stm\':
2) l'os uivr ,,,jlll' or S,'''''11 1'''(,11'
(Tditlin., 1"\"('/, tl/1d lin" lrvrls in l'iIt;/,,,,,, \\-ho lIit'd: .11 Ph",<;icfll ,,;~1J.<; of
I'hcnc.' '."he Ii til' int II.\" icat« m. inc Ir uUng
".,",qll.l.!lII11S. I1nlle /"","('/10";"_ ".'"I'CTtJIl',,,,ill. ,/,111'''01('.'\;,c. lIuel rlrvnt es!



__ I




70 -





Nom/ I'W"<;f/1(':.' '.'( 1''.1 r 41 N.n"lIgmrrs
wit h both hm;::oI11al and vertical


n Iml'OHfnl s !,1t'Sf'II'.?·' tH. "'. ,]


50 '


_0 '


30 -


F1<;[HlE 2. An"tn"'.l·
Tt,scr ~ dfln c.

of embedded

20 '

linn was colh-cted 011 "'~l', sex, race,
who shot t hc weapon, whether rc
straiurs were usc..t, medical diagnosis,
cnmplicnt inne of laser It, autopsy rc-




suhs. method of barb removal, and associan-d trentmcnr. The patients who
died had ftlll autopsies rcrtonucd hy
the Los An,~de", County nllOller's IIf(ice to determine the cause of death.
P:ltit'nts included in the study were all
those shot with a Tascr " who presented to the Kin~/J)rew emergency depnrttucnt. None was excluded.
These data were compared to similar data on pntieuts who were shot
with .,~R Special handguns hy police
officers for the control of either violent or crimiunl hchavior and who
were hml1~ht fllr t rent tuent to the
Kill~/1 hew Mcdic.rl Center t1uril1~ the
pcrind from l;lIll1:lry 19RO to December
19H21 Only patients who were shot hy
police officers were included. This was
usually verified hy the accompanying
officer. All patients meeting these criteria were included, except those for
whom only ht';H5:1Y evidence indicated that it was an officer-related
shootin~ and those not brought to the
hnspunl after heing shot hy police
who may have been handled hy the
coroner's office with no medical treatment. l'nt icnt s were I1l1t ;IW41ft' that
they were hein,g studit'd, and consent
was not requited because treatment
W:1S tendered nrcmding to established
ptotncols of standard mcdicnl practice.
No bliudinu \\':1<: used, fotO% of clinical
Oh.. . crvntions wen- malic hy the princip;11 mulun, and the n'nutiudcr were
made In' ctuvux-ncv medicine resident



SI;ltic.;tic.,1 :llwly.. . is indtl{lnt caleul:!of st:lIHbld deviation, chi-squall',
:mll ANOVA lromp<lTison of uncqu:l1
gllltl 1''' I usi1l1~ :111 II\M-PC" :llld Sial'

,gt;ll'hir" ~ 1'11I.Ct:lI11,






- -
















laser" Injuries
Two hundred eighteen patients who
wen- s hot with -(:1Sl'IS M were included,
The 111\,;111 <l1~e W:IS l.R years Ist:111t!;Htl
dl'\·j:ltiol1, 'I.H; 1;1I1~l', If) to 4HI. Ninety-fi\'l' percent were men, All were
shot hy police officers. In all C:1SCl", the
guns w:;ed were manufactured hy laser" lndustttcs Incorporated lEI 'Iluo,
Califonunl Ninctv-niuc percent of Patn-nt ... wen- hrought in hy police. Sixty
l'I'HTlIl \\"{'Il' hlOtI~ht in with no p:II;1til \'Illl'l.\!,l'I1l:Y IllCtlk;11 tl'dllli-










('(lIlt;lcL ThirtY'nine pe,fent tI',p:Hkl1fs wert' hmll~hl in hy
1',!IMnl;tirs with police in t'seort, :1l1d
I'~, \\";llknl in on their own, J'rt'Stll11;,hh- :~IJ.('1' ht'in,C "t:I"'net!" hy the polke






-- ._.:'"P~~RllVlJlj~J'n)

SCA.lP (2.0"')





and then escaping.
Of those brought in hy police, 46%
were in hard restraints fie, thick leather hinders on all limbs with keylocks]. 'lwcnt y pt'rn'nl were shot hecause thl'y exhibited violent heh;1Villr
hut were no longer restrained, and 7'X,
were in custody for criminal offenses
and were handcuffed. Seventy-six percent of all patients were "tascrcd" for
biznrn- and uncontrollable behavior
[unusual hut not necessarily directed
vinh-ncr-], 4f1'Y" for biznr re :!ntl extrcmcly ceunhativc Il\'h:lvilll jwifh tli·
rected violencel; :1nd S'X", for hizane
and 1I1lcontrollalJle h(:havillr with
nudism),' f'Jahle II, Sixty'ei~hl 1''''cent of patients were put on a 71-hour
psychi:ltric hold; h:11f (If them \\'I'rc






.... GUUE 3. Tascrv»! l't1liclJl

~;I;lJlJ. llumc. disdltlfgt.:d home hom
the ellh1/,~CIJC)' tlCl'iUlI111:ut a;lel tl\'Cl'

MEDICAL (14.9'1)

dge ~ld}' u; ~ix 1l()1Il.~; IJ~)·(·Il. Ib)'chi·
dltic utlmi~.\wu, W.IWJl)',V" u 72·11011'
, im'o!uutdry hold; M.:dil.:;JJ. adnuua!
Ju the mc.IJ("J ~en'j(c (Ii tlu: IW':Ipittl}
fOI {luther l1ctltm..:lll; jIJi}. rd":iJ')..:d to
police CU:SICJl/)' utter lI":,H went in the
cmergency ,l,,:ptutmelll; .uvd CO(()JJcr.

JAIL (5.9'1)

HOME (46.0"')

all patieut» who dia! l'ct:t:i\'c(/ dUWp,
sics l)y the Angdc:s Coullty CoruIla's Ofiit'e to delam;llc cause o{
FIGURE 4. Offi"e,

PSYCH (29.7'1)

CORONER (1.5"')

idence of recent cocaine use.» five
percent of patients hal! a psychiatric
disorder unrelated to drug use and hal!
negative drug screens (Figure 11.

Associated Diseases
Fifteen percent of patients had preexisting diseases, including psychiatric disorder, sickle cell trait. mitral
valve prolapse, cardiac arrhythmia.
and sick sinus syndrome. The one patient with a previous history of cardiac disease had mitral valve prolapse,
cardiac arrhythmia, and sick sinus
Thirty-eight percent of patients hal!
associated injuries, usually associated
with the violent behavior from I'CI'
intoxication. These injuries included
multiple abrasions in 4~ paucnts, stab
wounds in 11 patients, and multiple
lacerations [not due to knives] in
seven patients. There were no hone

later released from the emergency de-

paruncrn to go home.
Eiglu y-six percent of patients had a
I tory of recent [sante oayl PCP
~sei 70% had positive levels of
PCP j 64% had signs of PCP intoxicauun, ami 4~% hal! both vertical and
horizonral nystagmus [srrong evidence
of PCP ahuscl.l·>1 TWenty-six percent
of patients had positive ethanol levels,
.1I1t1 4'Y., hau <.I hislory and physic'll ev<

11, I 1."""u,,llIUI


The number of dans fired by the police officers ranged from two to lour,
with a mean of 2.6 ISI1, I..l1 per pauent. The number of dans present in
the patients' skin 011 admission to the
emergency dcparuucru rall~ed from
one to four, with OJ mean uf 2.3 (SD,
G.Y31 per patient. The anatomical distribution of the embedded darts is
shown [Figure 21.

Vital Signs>
The average blood pressure of II ta ·
sered" patients' fJll admission lO the

ED was I:utlBO ISD. 151161. with a
& ....... 1.......

e __•

..... _ .... _. __


I'llse tll lire

range ot IOtI!70 lU 160/ toO. The avera~c pulse rate \\'J~ Y6Imin lSD, 211,
with a r,an~c of xu to 160. Aside [rum
the three "t ascrvd " pat i cnt s wu h
asystole, no cuhcr c'lhh,H.: <
were reported.

Other Treatment
Electrocardiography was performed
on 3H U/u of patients. All were normal
for rhythm, except the three patients
who had asystole. forty-five percent of
patients required tetanus prophylaxis.
All dans were removed hy incising the
skin at the base uf the shaft with a
# II scalpel blade. No suturing was required.

The mortahry rate associated wnh '
Taser s usc wss 1.4·}~. All three of
these patients arrived at the ED in
asystole. "laser'" darb were embedded
in the anterior thigh, buttocks, and
back in these patients. All three hal!
high levels uf PCP in borh serum
10.156 to 0.43 I'g/mll and liver (0.44 to
0.76 I'g/mll. One hal! a previous cardiac his(ury. including cardiac arrhythmias [sick sinus syndrome with
mitral valve prolapse] and \VdS 011 diguxin. All three patients went into
cardiac .nIesl af rcr being "tuscrcd."
Two paricnrs with no previous history
went into cardiac anest 5 .md 15 minutes aha being "rascred," ..ud the
third weru intu le~pjr.llt1ry arrest fullowed by cardi ..c .tI'le:,t 2S uunurcs
after hdll~ "rascrcd." None responded
10 AClS resuscit..tiunJ The coroners
report tor uf Ihe three pauems
suned th.ilt death WJ~ due lu phcncyclidinc IUxidty, with 110 M~IIS ol
myocardial dJmage, airway ubsrructiun, or other path(llo~y.
Tluny-eiglu percent of patients had

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _• •

'.7.'.;;! mp? 7[

• •

;mm T


'tI' it:



Ordog el HI


5. 1J;l1g'IUfI of ·,i,\cr ....

nssnciau-d inilllit''' lelart.'(1 til their vlo.


lent hl'h;wiot nud 110t to lise of tilt.'
Tascr ". Eighteen of the !';nil'nls rcquircd suturing of wounds and 1.,% of '
nil 1'1ilit'IlIS wen- admitted 10 the husflit:I' fOI jl1illrit'~ !"lI~I:,il1t:d dIU' 10 their
violent behavior, primarily I'll'cxi:'itin~

t HANon

(lell .nd RighI)

stah wounds, The admitted patients
spent an average of two days in the


Mild rhnbdomvulysis and rnyoJtlohil1uria occurred in 1% (l't patients

and required hospital treatment. No
renal complications were seen.
Whether the breakdown of muscle occurred due to PCP aO\ls(",·\ or to the
tetanic contractions associated with
the Taser " could not he determined,
hut each of these patients had positive
levels of rCI! One patient developed a
testicular torsion immediately after

being "tnscrcd." He denied preexisting
scrot;,1 patn or swelling, hut it could
not he determined whether the torsion was a result of the Tascr " wound.
This patient W,1S "tnscred" fOf criminal activity and not for psychiatric or
drug-related hell. vim, Hi, PCP screen
was negative.
One patient stated that he became
sterile after Ill'in~ "tnscrcd' in the
scrotum. whether the sterility W;Hi
prccxtsnng could not be determined






TABLE I. Reason for patients being "tasered"



% of Patients

Bizarre and uncontrollable behavior
Bizarre and extremely combative behavior
Criminal aclivity, not intoxicated



Clinical Correlation
by history or drug screen


by history and serum tevels


Phencyclidine abuse Ethanol intoxication -


Cocaine intoxication

n:.hlc 11.

TARLE 2. Complications of 7aser'" use

"lascrcd" patients spent :111 average
of (,,5 hours lSD, 4,,11 in till' ED, The
disposiuon of patients alter treatment
in the ED is shown fFi~1I1l' JJ. Sixtytwo percent of patients h;lll :l psychiatric cvaluntton while in tbv ED. Half
of these l(,(i patients1 well' admitted to
the hospit:ll psychi;uric unit on a 72-

hour involuntnrv hold. These patients




spent :111 :1'..... r<1l-:l· of (our tI,1yS in the
fildJity bcfon- hciT1~ rulc.tscd. Almost
half (If all paticnt s were lucid enough
to hl' disch;ll~t·tl.

Contusions,' abrasions, lacerations (probably preexistent
and related to phencyclidine abuse)


Mild rhabdomyolysis (probably relaled 10 phencyclidineinduced hyperactivity)


Testicular torsion


Sierilily in men (not proven)




s stated that the

A lucid interval W;lS fl.'POI ted hy the
police in ""~, of patient .... \"hile the
prcvinusly psydwtk p;lIit'lIts h"tI current flowing fhrcmgh their bodies.
they nppnreutlv Ix-c.nuc lucid nud uricntcd, onlv ttl later I t- vert to disoricntcd and violent bch.rvior. "J his W;1S
strictly a lay observation anti was not
confttmcd hy medical or psvchiatrlc
personnel. Nil1l'ty-tWll pl',n"'t of ra·



had total am-

r lell1~ "tasered, n,

Other Observations

% of Patients


i n't re·

had no wound infections. The 2· to 4mm wounds were not sutured, hut
were cleaned with Betadine It solution
and dressed, All healed sati,f.c.orily,

Wuuud Care

wound care follow up

poor. None returned for wound check
clinic nppnintments, All patients were
telephoned 1m Iollow up, hut only
),';~~ el\,.ld he reached. The 48% of pati,nts who were admitted to either the
medical or psychiatric hospital were
w<1tfhtlll'l an average of four days and

Patients Shot With .3R Specials
Datil were collected on 22 patk-nts
bnutght hy parAmedics for treatment
alter being shut hy police with ,.18

Special handguns. The mean 'KC 01
these patients was J8 years [range, 14
to .181 and .11 were men, The .veraKe

number of hllllet wound, was LI




I .

HGlJlU: 7. "J'J-SI..'(II duu .'iIitJ\\'llIg ii.,hIW(JR. -like huh III elld ,,/ ~·h.Jft.
may be lIsed when a klhal 'on.:c, such
, as th.1t fWIIl OJ ..iN SpL.'ciJI haIlJ~t1I1, is
·nm justifiahle and when cunvcnuoual
tactics oi verhalizauun,·dl.'j,-'Ibc,
finn grip control, Jnd urhcrs do not
subdue the suspect. The "luscr h temporarily immubil izes hy using clectriciry at SO,(XN) vuhs 10.M juuk's JWJll1

sCl:onJ:.II.-t This elccu icuy is pulsed ill
a rate of 10 ItJ IS impubl,.·:' pel' second
and is suilidcllI to cause terauic contraction of the budy's muscles. Thus
the suspect is il1volul1IJlily paralyzed
as long as the current flows. Whcn the
Tascr ~ release bar is depressed, two
darts arc Ilwpclled from the gun over a
range of hum two ItJ 15 teet jrigures
4-61.~ The dans [Figure 71 pull two fine
conducting wires from a L:J:.scUI,.·. The
dans can attach either 10 rhe suspect's
clothing or 10 the skin. The current
will dfectivdy pass through two
inches oi clothing and need not pcnetrate the skin [ur immobilizauon.! A
person who is "rascrcd" is immobilized with just two to three seconds
of applied I~)wec. 4 The power may he
repeated as required tu maintain im-

mobilizauon, Conunnous applicauon
of current is ncr advised, for it could
result in respiratory arrest. T.lsers'"
have been shown til he efiective in immobilizing suspects H2% III the
time. 4 ,!lI Recovery frum being shot
with a Taser- reportedly is rapid. 4

Medical Treaunem
[range I to 521. Twenty-five percent of

the patients had physical or laboratory
evidence of recent usc of PCI~ ethanol,
or cocaine. The mortality rare was
50'1..; rhe I J patients who survived suiklcd permanent morbidity, im... luding
paralysjs, brain damage, and loss of
limb. The operative rate was 82%,
which included ED thoracotomy
whcu the patient arrived in extremis.
Avcrugc huspitahzauon for those paricnt s who survived was 41 Jays
/r;lIlge, 12 til 1601.

cant difference IP < .01) bel ween the
mortality rates of "tasered" patients
11.4%1 and those shot by police with a
.3M Special handgun whu received
treatment at the hospital jSttYt,j. Al-

though the two groups 19unshot
wound and "tasered" vicumsl au: not
equivalent, it would be impossible h)
establish a true comparison ~roliP in
tenus ot locauon of injury, number of
injuries, and reason for mcchuuicul

( LlIIl,arison of Victims

Then: was a sun isriculf y significant
dutcrcnce (I' < .(111 between the PCl'

muncur morbidity rates of "tasercd"
pat kilts 10'1." .U1J 11105c shot hy polkc
wnh a ..IX Special handgun (50%1.
There was also .1 btatisth.:ally signifiIf, I



The Taser s is used by police to minimize the 31110lUU of Iorce m:ccss.lry
to control violent' suspects" lpcrsollill
comrnuntcedous with Sgt Inn Kcll)·
and Sgt lack Schnuda, Los Angeles Pulice J)cpartmcllt~l\:rsonncl and Trainiug Ilureau.tieplemher 10, HiXol. They

The Tascr 1\ was designed as a nunlethal control device. Because the victim usually falls when paralyzed,
many need medical treatment for
minor trauma, MOM arc seen in the
emergency dcparuucm for removal of
lite dans fwm the skin. ~ The major
problems h:l.luirillg 1I1""diL:JI ucauucnt
appear to he [uuu precxistillg uuuucs
and toxic conditions that Jl:Cu,Jlly led
to thc palil..'1lI hell1~ "rascrcd." This
was usu.III)' due to the toxic psydJUsis
of PCP ami h) injuncs sustuuicd num
the violent behavuu a~stJdJ'nl with
it. Ahhou~h the huspu.11 adlllisMon
rate \,,'iIS high tollowing Tasc r II
wounds t~W;;d, IIlIly uuc pat icnt rcquircd JJlIlIssiun ht.'t.:.Jusc ui il ,lileL:(
illjUI')' ,luI,.' to the las~lh. All uthel patients required adunsston lor prccxieting (()XII.: psychoses, psycluurnc disorders, and injuries .bs(J(ialcJ with


I/lS~W IN,JUlill S

Vi411l'I1t Ix,h:1\i;IU.

tnht y and morbidity rate when the
laser'" is used, Another way of view.
illg these data is tn say that the Taser"
, \WIg associ:ttt'd with a 1.4'X, mortality
rate, and prohahly saved the 48.6% of
patients who may have otherwise
been sl",. with .1 ,,~R Special handgun.

Three "il1kllt!" died. pmh'lhly due to
cnrdinc nrrhythl11i;, in n prl'l'xistil1,l: irritnbh- hemt.!,' 1\11 tlm.'t' r:1til'nt!'i who
(Iit'd sustained toxic levels of PCI~ OIlC
had n history of cardiac disease anti
cardmc I1rrhythmi;lS, and :111 died scvcrnl m inut es after hcin.l: "tasered."
Thus I he 'Ihscr ~ Ci1I1I1ot ht' held solely

rt'l"ronsihlc (or tlWiT deaths. There is

The authors thank Sgt Jack Schmida and

very little in the litemture about rnortAlity rates for I'ht'ncyclidine abuse,
hut McCarron er :11l'l· showed ;1- 0.1%
mortality overall. with a 1% mortality
rate 11/106'lllS! for severely intoxicntcd pariems (which our ~rnllp represented], and ;1 S'X, mortality {l/20 pn-

SgtHm Kelly of the los Angeles Police
Department fur information and reference
sources on the laser'll; Los Angeles Police
Department Chief Darryl Gates for his
tcfetcncc on the rolice usc of the Tascr'Jr;
Officer Rilly Holland for posing for photo~r41rhs and lise of his Taser" for this
study, and Cindy Ordog for editing and
typinJ: the manuscript.

ticnts] for severely comatose patients.
Other potential iniuries not seen in






this clinical study included penetration of rnaior hlmlll VCSSt'!s,., rupture
of the ~Iohe, t; interference with a cardial' pacemaker," elcctricnllv induced
nt'urolo~kal ami renal injury,"" D myocardial infarction, u, 1,1 cardiac atthythmi as, I" lind [rnct lift'S."
The Inc idcnee ()f rhahdOlllyolysis
II'.~;,) W:IS consistt'nt with, if not lower
Ih:1l1/ that in the literature [runge, 0.2
to 11'~:",1"uc,J(,.17

When coml':m:d to police shootings
with h;1fulguns to iml1lnhili:c people
with \'ioll'Ill hl'll.1Viol', tht're is a
l11:Hkt'd nnd st:lIistic.11Iy 1(1\\'l'r 11101'-





1,," 7R




0'<10(1 et al


I'm··'!!! II? r


I. Zvlich N: li.~t·r - evltllllttinn and analYliill,
Unilt'd l\laft·~ Cnn"illloc.'r l'rlKlucl Sall'tY Cllm.
mis..ion Mt:mmantlllln, reference No. !j.1tt9.';Y:
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1 1\1t'Carron MM, Schulze U\Y, Thomp~on GA.
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1911';,14: mY-Ill.
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7. "'"wril'an 'h':ut A!'lfmdatinl1: Siantbul!'l and
Jtuidclim'" {lIr cardinrulmnnary rt'C;U!ilcilalinn
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1980j244:4's,1. "
ft McCarron MM,-Schllb:e my, Thomp~on GA.
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Ann Erner/( Med 19ftl j 10:290.297.

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10. Sulc1l1 L, Fischer RI: Stmll' ItG: The natuml
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t "i,,,,,,,,,

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12. Kohernick M: Electrical iniurie": I'a.
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A,m 1:'lJlI'r~ M,'" 19M2 jll:f.,.\:J.(;,\M,
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IS, Kirclun:tir \Y, Dienst! F: 15 c:trdiac munitur.
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,,' C;ltt'.. DF: the (II furce: Ta~r c1cctmnic cnn.
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16, fatd R, !)as M, PalaZZlliu M, C,'I al: MvoII:lohinuric ncutl.' rennl failure.' in phcncYclitlinc
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An" fnll'rJ( M"t/ 19R1J,9:S4Y.';S,l



F.r-.l: Thl' lit'ier- Weapon: A new
1·l11t".!:t',W\' mnlidl1l' rruhlt'm, AmI Enter!': M,'d
:". f<l'''l'n\'('


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