The report addressed high rates of incarceration in England and Wales, though its lessons apply to the U.S., where incarceration rates are even higher. The countries’ shared inclination toward imprisonment reflects a desire to safeguard the public from potential threats, which enjoys popular support. However, a punitive approach to crime—rather than one that is rehabilitative—compounded by insufficient prison capacity and staff, has led to overcrowded and violent prisons and jails.
Lip service paid to this by policy makers sounds hollow, especially in the U.K., where rehabilitation is supposedly the primary aim of incarceration. But prison reform is a formidable task, and being perceived as “soft” on crime and criminals is a political liability. So does a straightforward solution exist? Yes—and it could markedly improve prison conditions.
As the magazine notes, over one-half of all sentences handed down every year will last for a brief span, from a few weeks up to a year. These truncated sentences yield meager results, while both research and common sense underscore their detrimental impact. Typically reserved for non-violent, minor or repeat offenders grappling with turbulent lives, sentences under a year often mirror the struggles of those ensnared by them. Many contend with substance abuse, alcohol dependency or mental health problems—or all three at once. Many also lack basic literacy skills or steady employment, so even brief periods of incarceration carry high costs in lost jobs, lost housing or even lost children.
Incarcerating short-term offenders complicates prison management, too. New arrivals are primary conduits for drug smuggling, officials say, and their erratic behavior as they adjust to life behind bars disrupts those serving longer sentences for more serious crimes. A high staff turnover rate is also partly attributed to near-constant churn of short-term prisoners.
The case for reevaluating short sentences is particularly compelling for women, a minority of the incarcerated population often guilty of minor infractions. Although their numbers are limited, the repercussions of their time behind bars can be profound. Frequently, women bear the primary responsibility for raising children—so when mothers are incarcerated, their children are often uprooted and placed in foster care or state institutions. This dislocation may contribute to a well-established cycle of criminal involvement for the offspring of imprisoned parents.
To drastically reduce the prevalence of short sentences, it is essential first to raise the threshold of criminal severity for incarceration. Reserving custodial sentences for offenses beyond minor shoplifting would be more effective than a presumption against short sentences, which might inadvertently lead to longer terms.
Critical to this shift is enhancing alternatives to incarceration. Community-based sentences, which exhibit lower rates of recidivism compared to short prison terms, could be better structured. When individuals fail to complete mandated community service hours, what’s needed are not more cells to hold them but more probation officers to oversee them. Judges presiding over lower courts also need comprehensive training in community-based sentences.
Crucially, mandating treatment for offenders battling drug, alcohol or mental health issues is paramount. This is also true for those handed longer sentences, many of whom also require medical assistance for addiction and mental health issues. While punishment remains an integral facet of sentencing, its potency diminishes considerably if it fails to address the underlying causes of criminal behavior.
Source: The Economist
In an article published on June 28, 2023, The Economist slammed policies driving high rates of incarceration for failing to deliver meaningful improvement in public safety. In fact, the influential news magazine noted that safety may be further undermined as survivors of overcrowded and violent lockups are released.
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