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Prisoner Education Guide

Prison Legal News: July, 1993

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Volume 4, Number 7

In this issue:

  1. No Qualified Immunity for Medical Indifference (p 1)
  2. Lack of Treatment States Claim (p 1)
  3. Reduction In Damages Improper (p 2)
  4. Equal Protection for Handicapped Explained (p 2)
  5. Racism and Treatment (p 3)
  6. Arizona Prisoners Denied Adequate Mental Health Care (p 3)
  7. The Transsexual in Prison-A Focal Point (p 4)
  8. Incompetent Medical Exam Violates 8th Amendment (p 5)
  9. Informal Brief Acts as Notice of Appeal (p 5)
  10. Confiscation of Legal Materials States Claim (p 6)
  11. Congress to Limit Prisoner Suits (p 6)
  12. AG Not Entitled to Immunity (p 6)
  13. Rehabilitation versus Punishment=Attitude (p 7)
  14. Grievance Procedure Tolls Statute of Limitations (p 8)
  15. Dismissal not Appropriate for Unintentional Delay (p 8)
  16. Illinois Tolling Statute Unconstitutional (p 8)
  17. Men in Prison: A Review (p 9)
  18. Prison Riot in Argentina (p 10)
  19. The Hot House; Life Inside Leavenworth Prison - A Book Review (p 10)
  20. We Need Solutions, Not More Prisons (p 11)
  21. From The Editor (p 11)
  22. German Prison Destroyed (p 13)
  23. Prison Breakout in Peru (p 13)
  24. Palestinian Political Prisoners (p 14)
  25. Letter from Spain (p 15)
  26. Control Units and Democratic Repression in Chile (p 16)

No Qualified Immunity for Medical Indifference

Dennis Hamilton is an Alaska state prisoner. After an ear operation prison officials tried to fly him to a federal prison in Oklahoma. The trip was aborted after the first leg of the trip due to extreme ear pain caused by flying. Hamilton's doctor wrote prison officials stating Hamilton should not be allowed to fly until his medical condition stabilized. Despite this information prison officials again scheduled him to fly. Hamilton lost an administrative appeal and filed, and lost, a state court appeal to halt the move.

Hamilton's ear was again operated on, to repair the damage from the first flight. A few days later prison officials notified him he would be flown to Oklahoma. Prison officials obtained an opinion from a DOC contract physician who stated Hamilton could fly immediately after the operation. The DOC physician never examined Hamilton, his medical file nor consulted his treating physician. Hamilton was flown to Oklahoma and the flight, as predicted, caused him severe, permanent hearing damage. Hamilton filed suit under § 1983 claiming his eighth amendment rights had been violated.

Prison officials filed for summary judgement claiming Hamilton had failed to allege a cause of action or, if he had, they ...

Lack of Treatment States Claim

Charles Watson is a Maine state prisoner. Prior to entering prison he injured his hand. Once imprisoned he sought medical treatment for his hand injury. A prison nurse examined him and refused treatment, saying the DOC was not responsible for injuries incurred before confinement. Watson eventually received treatment and had surgery. Watson filed suit under § 1983 claiming the delay in treatment violated his eighth amendment rights. He also complained of a lack of proper treatment for a back injury and destruction of cassettes he had ordered in the mail. The district court dismissed the complaint as being frivolous.

The court of appeals for the first circuit affirmed in part, vacated in part and remanded. The appeals court affirmed dismissal of Watson's claim concerning his cassettes and his back injury.

The court reversed dismissal of the complaint pertaining to the hand injury. The court noted that the deliberate refusal to treat a prisoner's serious medical condition is not justifiable. Deliberate indifference to prisoner's medical needs violates the eighth amendment. Wanton decisions to delay or deny care, where the action is reckless and requires actual knowledge of easily preventable, impending harm, demonstrates deliberate indifference.

While Watson's claim may ...

Reduction In Damages Improper

Harry Weeks was a parapeligic Ohio state prisoner. For a two year period Weeks was housed in a control unit at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility (SOCF) at Lucasville, OH. The control unit did not permit Weeks to have a wheelchair. L.R. Chaboudy was the prison doctor during this ...

Equal Protection for Handicapped Explained

Wheelchair bound prisoners at the Iowa State Penitentiary (ISP) filed suit concerning denial of physical access and programming because of their disability. The parties settled most of the problems in a consent decree. The one issue not settled was prison officials' refusal to provide in-cell cable TV access to handicapped prisoners in ISP's Special Needs Unit. The district court found that this refusal to provide in-cell cable TV, which is available to all other ISP prisoners, violated the prisoners' constitutional right to equal protection. The court entered declaratory and injunctive relief in the prisoners' favor.

The court of appeals for the eighth circuit reversed. The appeals court gave a detailed explanation of equal protection rights and how it applies to prisoners and the disabled. The court held that the Americans with Disabilities Act 42 U.S.C. § 12101 and Iowa Code 601A do not alter the standard for constitutional equal protection claims.

The court noted that prisoners have no fundamental right to in-cell cable TV, and held that wheelchair-bound prisoners are not a suspect class. Thus, prisoners' equal protection claims are reviewed on a "rational basis" standard. Under this standard the prisoners will prevail if: 1) they are similarly ...

Racism and Treatment

by Terrance Hazel

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice's (TDCJ) present method of administering Substance Abuse Treatment Programs (SATP) discriminate against Black and Hispanic inmates. Black and Hispanic prisoners are:

71 percent of inmate population (35,000+)
80 percent of that 71 percent have serious drug problems (20,000+).

Yet TDCJ (as of Spring '92), despite overwhelming evidence (Davis & Tunks, 1991; Desmund & Maddux, 1984; Grant, 1992) that `Cultural Sensitivity' improves the likelihood of positive treatment outcomes:

Had one licensed Black/Hispanic SATP counselor for 45+ prison units, and over 50,000 inmates.
Refuses to acknowledge Cultural issues (i.e. Cultural Correlates and Risk-Factors).
Uses no Culturally Sensitive materials in their SATPs.
Brings new prisons on-line without any treatment staff.

There is no doubt that Black and Hispanic addiction issues get no priority. The amount we spend to incarcerate one person, with no positive outcome, would treat two or three addicts, and educate at least one child through Harvard.

Several recent studies found that "...urban youth laugh at current mainstream attempts to reach them. (Juzang, The MEE Report; Reaching the Hip-Hop Generation.) While the Texas Youth Commission found "Widespread differences in the treatment of minorities..." (Jackson, 1993). Another book, Deadly Consequences, by ...

Arizona Prisoners Denied Adequate Mental Health Care

The treatment of seriously mentally ill prisoners in Arizona is "appalling," according to a recent decision today by United States District Judge Carl Muecke in Phoenix.

Ruling in Casey v. Lewis, a class action lawsuit brought on behalf of all Arizona prisoners, Muecke found that numerous deficiencies in the prison mental health system "result in deliberate indifference to inmates' serious mental health needs such that the inmates' constitutional rights to be free from cruel and unusual punishment are violated." Attorneys from the National Prison Project of the American Civil Liberties Union in Washington, D.C. and attorneys with the Arizona Civil Liberties Union brought the case for the prisoners.

Muecke rejected the prison officials' defense that these deficiencies are an unavoidable result of budgetary constraints. "The fact that the lack of staff and programming is partially a result of lack of funding from the legislature is not a defense to these constitutional violations," he wrote.

Arizona prison officials also discriminate unlawfully against female prisoners by failing to provide them mental health services comparable to those provided to men, Muecke found.

Muecke also found that the prison medical and dental care systems were unconstitutional at the time the lawsuit was filed ...

The Transsexual in Prison-A Focal Point

[Editors Note: Quetzala Lofofora Eva Contreras is a First Nations Transsexual Lesbian. She is a trained paralegal and from 1990-1992 was the Executive Director in California of Transsexuals In Prison, a nationwide organization of incarcerated and non-incarcerated, pre-and post-operative male to female and female to male transsexuals and their supporters working for improved medical and custodial conditions of the imprisoned transsexual, and editor of its California region newsletter Pan-Transsexual Awareness. She is a past member of Fact Quebec, which centers on AIDS and other issue facing Transsexual, Lesbians and Gays in Canada. Born into the Cupeno Nation, Lofofora is a council member of Ce Anahuatz Wakana (Generally, First Nation Transsexuals), a religious society of native transsexual lesbians.]

Gender dysphoria is generally defined as a serious psychosexual disturbance. Briefly, gender dysphoria is a condition that involves sex-role inversion and hormonal and surgical sexual transformation. Sex-role inversion is a condition in which a person of one biological sex thinks, feels and acts like the opposite sex, the acquisition of a sex role not consistant with their biological composition. Its cause remains unknown. Some researchers place predisposition in utero. Transsexualism is the most radical form of gender dysphoria. It is a serious medical ...

Incompetent Medical Exam Violates 8th Amendment

Eugene Souza was a Rhode Island state prisoner. He developed acute appendicitis and sought treatment from prison doctors. The prison did not provide direct access to doctors; instead, sick prisoners were screened by a guard/nurse who would schedule doctor visits if they felt it was necessary. For a three month period Souza suffered pain and infection before he was seen by a doctor. Souza died of appendicitis shortly thereafter due to a lack of treatment and his estate filed suit.

In this case the defendants have filed 14 motions to dismiss. Each time the court has denied their motions and does so again. The court noted that the eighth amendment standards of deliberate indifference to medical needs are complicated when a prisoner receives some treatment and claims it is inadequate. The court held that inadequate treatment can be tantamount to denial of treatment and is thus actionable under § 1983 and the eighth amendment.

The court denied the defendants' qualified immunity by ruling it was a material fact in dispute, because determination of the defendants' mental state is best done by a jury.

A grossly incompetent and recklessly inadequate examination by a licensed physician is a deliberately indifferent examination. The ...

Informal Brief Acts as Notice of Appeal

William Smith is a paraplegic Maryland state prisoner. He filed suit against various prison guards, doctors and officials claiming they were deliberately indifferent to his serious medical needs by denying him use of a wheelchair. Before trial the district court dismissed several of the defendants. The case went to trial ...

Confiscation of Legal Materials States Claim

Wayne Zilich is a Pennsylvania state prisoner. When he was transferred from prison to a county jail for court proceedings jail guards confiscated a number of his transcripts, legal materials and papers and refused to return them. Zilich filed suit under § 1983 claiming that the confiscation of his legal materials violated his right of access to the courts. The district court dismissed the complaint for failing to state a claim for which relief could be granted. The district court held that because Zilich could file suit in state court he had an adequate post deprivation remedy which barred a federal § 1983 action.

The court of appeals for the third circuit reversed and remanded. The court begins by noting that access to the court claims can be filed under § 1983. Because the destruction or confiscation of legal materials may violate the right of access to the courts the lower court erred in dismissing Zilich's suit.

The court went on to hold that the existence of state post deprivation remedies did not foreclose a § 1983 claim in federal court. The court held that Hudson v. Palmer, 468 US 517, 104 S.Ct. 3194 (1984), does not apply to this type of ...

Congress to Limit Prisoner Suits

A comprehensive civil justice reform bill has been introduced in the Senate by Charles Grassley (R-IA). S.585, the Civil Justice Reform Act of 1993, would establish a modified English rule on attorney fees in federal diversity cases. The amount the loser would have to pay would be limited to the amount of his or her own fees, and the court would be given broad discretion to limit the amount to prevent injustice. The bill would also require 30 days advance notice of intent to sue. Prisoners with civil rights cases would be required to first exhaust their administrative remedies before filing suit in federal court.

The bill would also establish a statutory offer of judgement rule, pursuant to which either party could offer a settlement to another party at any point in the litigation. Finally, the bill would limit the parties to one expert witness on a given issue. 1993 WL 73183 (pp. 8-18).

AG Not Entitled to Immunity

Paul and I have been doing the newsletter with this new 16-paged magazine format for several months now, and in that time we have managed to get a sense of what difference in cost this new printing system will make. By dividing our production cost into the number of PLN readers we have come up with a figure of nearly 75¢ to produce and mail each copy of the newsletter to you. This amount does not include PLN-related postage, phone calls to our volunteers, photocopying, and the many other costs related to running the day-to-day operation of the paper. Anyway, this 75¢ is about 25¢ more than the approximately 50¢ it cost when we were putting out only ten pages a month. So our productions costs have risen by a quarter per issue, and for that 25¢ we are able to give you six more pages of newsletter each month.

Since our cost of production has gone up, we are going to pass this extra expense on to you in the form of higher subscription rates. From now on, when you send in a contribution it will buy you fewer months worth of newsletter. Up until now we have been ...

Rehabilitation versus Punishment=Attitude

I'm a prisoner at the Washington State Penitentiary (WSP) in Walla Walla, Washington. I'm one of the Indeterminate Sentence Prisoners who the Parole Board has to determine is "rehabilitated" before they will release me back into society. While I have to be rehabilitated to secure my release, prisoners sentenced under Washington's Sentencing Reform Act (SRA) are merely being "punished" (the Parole Board has no authority over them) and rehabilitation is not a prerequisite before they are released back into society.

I understand that several states have similar sentencing systems as the State of Washington-- the system will be explained in more detail below. What is the equation Rehabilitation versus Punishment = Attitude?

The Revised Code of Washington (RCW) provides that the Parole Board shall not release a prisoner unless in its opinion his "rehabilitation" has been complete and he is a fit subject for release. RCW 9.95.100. To my knowledge, the Washington State Parole Board has never defined the meaning of the word rehabilitation to the prisoners under its control. Old guideline prisoners, the only ones who must be rehabilitated, are treated no differently than SRA offenders who are merely being punished. What follows is a ...

Grievance Procedure Tolls Statute of Limitations

William Gartrell is a Texas state prisoner. He filed suit under § 1983 claiming prison officials conspired to file trumped up disciplinary charges against him in retaliation for his legal activities; the disciplinary hearing and grievance procedure did not comport with due process; and that he was denied an impartial review of the disciplinary and grievance proceedings.

The district court dismissed Gartrell's suit under 28 U.S.C. § 1915 (d) as being "frivolous" because the two year statute of limitations had run on most of the claims. The one claim that was not time barred, the denial of Gartrell's final administrative appeal, did not have a legal or factual basis as a constitutional claim.

The court of appeals for the fifth circuit concluded that the district court had abused its discretion and vacated and remanded.

The appeals court begins by noting that there is no federal statute of limitations for § 1983 civil rights actions. The federal court borrows the forum states general personal injury limitations period, which in Texas is two years.

Gartrell does not dispute the two year limitations period. Rather, he argues that the statute of limitations is tolled while he exhausts his administrative remedies. The appeals ...

Dismissal not Appropriate for Unintentional Delay

David Sterling is a BOP prisoner. He filed suit under the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) in district court in California claiming prison officials at Leavenworth, Kansas, negligently prescribed medication which caused him severe stomach and auditory pain. After he filed suit he was moved to a North Dakota prison. He wrote the court clerk in California and requested that the suit be transferred to the district court in North Dakota. The suit was transferred and the district court dismissed the suit for lack of prosecution.

The court of appeals for the eighth circuit reversed and remanded. The appeals court noted that district courts have inherent power to dismiss cases for failure to prosecute and those dismissals are reviewed for an abuse of discretion. Cases should be dismissed with prejudice only where the plaintiff has intentionally and willfully failed to prosecute his/her claim.

The court held that Sterling had provided enough evidence that he was not notified of the case's transfer to North Dakota to explain his failure to prosecute. The appeals court ruled that an evidentiary hearing was required by the lower court in order to determine the exact circumstances of Sterling's failure to contact the ...

Illinois Tolling Statute Unconstitutional

Until 1987 Illinois prisoners had until two years after they were released from prison in which to file lawsuits. Any statute of limitations was tolled by imprisonment. In 1987 the Illinois legislature modified Illinois Rev. Statute ch. 110, ¶ 13-211, so that claims by prisoners against the DOC or DOC employees were not tolled by imprisonment. Thus creating a special tolling exception for the DOC.

Anthony Dixon was infracted for killing a guard, found guilty at a disciplinary hearing and given a year in segregation and lost a year of good time. He attempted to file suit in 1987 but did not actually file until 1991. The district court dismissed the suit holding it was time barred by the tolling statute. Dixon appealed contending the tolling statute was unconstitutional.

The court of appeals for the seventh circuit reversed and remanded. The court relied on Felder v. Casey, 487 US 131, 108 S.Ct. 2302 (1987), in determining that the Illinois statute was "inconsistent with the constitution and laws of the United States." Because the Illinois legislature singled out claims against certain public employees (prison officials), and made suits against them more difficult, it unlawfully burdened the exercise of federal § 1983 suits ...

Men in Prison: A Review

Generally, whenever we review publications in PLN we give you a brief synopsis of their highlights and ordering information. That is because as a newsletter we lack the space to do much more than this. Occasionally a publication will come along that has a lot of good information in and of itself that is worth sharing. This is one of them.

Men's Studies Review (MSR) is published by the Institute for the Study of Social Change at the University of California at Berkeley. Men in Prison is a special issue of their gender studies publication. It is readily apparent that with about 93% of the prison population being male that the criminal justice system has a disproportionate impact on men. MSR puts this in a good perspective beyond what we normally see about the class and racial bias of the prison system. The following are excerpts from "Understanding Men in Prison:The Relevance of Gender Studies", an article by Donald Sabo and Willie London.

"The growth of the prison system can be explained with reference to gender order and masculine hegemony.

"(1) Social inequalities, especially highly visible ones, create social turbulence or low level revolt that then becomes policed ...

Prison Riot in Argentina

One prisoner was killed and several were injured by gunfire and several others managed to escape from Batan prison outside Mar de Plata, Argentina, when a riot erupted after a Feb. 8, 1993, break out attempt. According to differing reports, either 23 or 18 of the 25 prisoners who tried to flee were subsequently recaptured; another 80 who had remained inside the prison and had taken two hostages surrendered on Feb. 9. The prison holds about 700 prisoners total. In Coronda, another Argentine prison in the province of Santa Fe (north of Buenos Aires), some 70 prisoners started a protest on Feb. 9, after authorities discovered a tunnel more than 50 meters long.
Weekly News Update

The Hot House; Life Inside Leavenworth Prison - A Book Review

By Ed Mead

I have just finished a pretty good book. A comrade gave it to me late yesterday afternoon. I went back to my cell and started reading it, and then kept on reading until exhaustion overtook me at 3:00 in the morning. I woke up four hours later, at 7:00 a.m., ate a quick breakfast, and continued to read until finishing the book at 11:00 a.m. It is titled The Hot House; Life Inside Leavenworth Prison, by Pete Earley. The book is about the federal prison at Leavenworth, Kansas, during the two year period between 1987 and 1989, and it consists of a series of interviews with prisoners, guards, and prison administrators. The author is white, and it appears as if all the prisoners he interviews are also white and either members of or else sympathetic to racist gangs. Needless to say, the plight of black prisoners is not explored. Still, the writer does manage to communicate the terrible reality of life inside a maximum security prison. At least he succeeds in understanding that in an irrational world, such as a prison, irrationality makes perfect sense.

So I'm reading this book up ...

We Need Solutions, Not More Prisons

The state of Washington, like most other states in the U.S., is on an expensive prison building binge. The state's prison population has tripled since the late '70s, yet crime rates continue to soar. The same situation exists elsewhere across the country. Californians, for example, believe that the greater the number of cells, the safer they are. Since 1980, that state's prison population has grown 300 percent. Six percent of California's general fund is spent on corrections, up from 2 percent a decade ago. Yet FBI reports say violent crime in California jumped 4.3 percent last year.

The reasons for this are varied and complex, and beyond the scope of this article. It's enough to say that there is some evidence to suggest that imprisonment may actually increase post-release criminal activity. The December 1992 issue of Corrections Today reported on a recent study done by the RAND Corporation: "RAND analysts," the article said, "recently studied a `matched sample' of California offenders convicted of similar crimes and with similar criminal records. The two groups differed only in their sentences - members of one group went to prison, the others received probation. After tracking the groups for ...

From The Editor

Paul and I have been doing the newsletter with this new 16-paged magazine format for several months now, and in that time we have managed to get a sense of what difference in cost this new printing system will make. By dividing our production cost into the number of PLN readers we have come up with a figure of nearly 75¢ to produce and mail each copy of the newsletter to you. This amount does not include PLN-related postage, phone calls to our volunteers, photocopying, and the many other costs related to running the day-to-day operation of the paper. Anyway, this 75¢ is about 25¢ more than the approximately 50¢ it cost when we were putting out only ten pages a month. So our productions costs have risen by a quarter per issue, and for that 25¢ we are able to give you six more pages of newsletter each month.

Since our cost of production has gone up, we are going to pass this extra expense on to you in the form of higher subscription rates. From now on, when you send in a contribution it will buy you fewer months worth of newsletter. Up until now we have been ...

German Prison Destroyed

Many people in Germany had good reason to celebrate in March. Early on Saturday, March 27, a series of explosions destroyed most of a newly completed high-tech prison that was to be put to use in May, 1993. The prison in Weiterstadt, close to Frankfurt, took eight years to build and cost 250 million Marks ($155 million). It was to hold 500 prisoners and was to be a multi-use prison, including units for deportees, a high-security unit for women, and for prisoners awaiting trial. The German state has made much of Weiterstadt's "humane conditions" - a model for a new corrections policy. The latter is true, Weiterstadt would have embodied the latest in high-tech incarceration. The prisoners were to be placed in so-called "living groups" of 10 to 20 prisoners, in single cells with a common room and a small kitchen. The cells and the group rooms were to be monitored with video cameras and microphone/speakers.

The "living-groups" were to be put together by social workers, psychotherapists, etc., and were to operate by a system of "punishment-reward." The prisoner, on his or her arrival, would be assessed according to his or her will to resist or adapt. Depending on ...

Prison Breakout in Peru

On March 27, 1993, some 70 prisoners from the Cuzco jail in the Southern Andes of Peru escaped after at least 20 presumed members of the Communist Party of Peru (PCP) destroyed a back wall by exploding a vehicle loaded with explosives, according to a journalistic source.

A journalist from Cuzco, 360 miles southeast of Lima, said that initially there were five reported dead, including one policeman, and most of the prisoners who escaped in the confusion were members of the PCP.

The report stated that during the moments following the sunday visit at the jail, the insurgents exploded a pickup truck loaded with approximately 100 kilograms of dynamite, followed immediately by strong gunfire.

From outside the jail, the guerrillas protected the exit of the prisoners by firing at guards. It is presumed that the prisoners also fired some weapons to open their way, said an informant. A Cuzco police chief, who asked not to be identified, said that there is evidence that the prisoners used vehicles and even horses to get away from the jail that was considered high security.

PLN has reported the barbaric conditions of Peruvian political prisoners and POWs [PLN, Vol. 4, no. 4] in the ...

Palestinian Political Prisoners

Israeli prisons are in many respects a microcosm of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. As places of detention and physical and psychological suffering, they represent in starkest terms the violent essence of occupation. On the other hand, Palestinian prisoners have turned them into fronts of struggle and steadfastness. Thus in the face of often brutally harsh conditions, Palestinian prisoners strive not only to survive but to live in dignity.

There are 30 Israeli prisons, military detention centers and major police lock-ups in the occupied territories for holding Palestinian political prisoners. They are notorious for their lack of basic facilities, such as water and shelter to protect detainees from extreme temperatures. There are also five major police lock-ups which should only hold detainees for short periods of time, but are often used to incarcerate prisoners for months at a time. Although it is forbidden under international law to transfer a detainee from occupied territory to the territory of the occupying power, the authorities routinely imprison Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza in detention facilities inside Israel.

The Palestinian Human Rights Information Center (PHRIC) reported that at least 120,000 Palestinians, including children as young as 10 years of age, have been detained ...

Letter from Spain

by Pablo Serrano Zaragoza, Spain

The only thing new is an important increase in the prisoner population. They are filling the prisons to the roof. They have built various new prisons that are already full. Aside from this process, which follows even greater social injustice and inequality, it is due to the proximity of the general elections (in October of 93) and because of it the government has to maintain calm streets. It is a dynamic in which the judges are collaborating to the maximum. Through the mass media a succession of rapes and murders of little girls which occurred recently, have been used to mount a whole lynch mob campaign against prisoners by public opinion. This is when faced with an economic crisis (the Spanish economy is at low levels and the unemployment level surpasses 3 million workers, more than 20 % of the working population), and without "enemies" to blame now that the Soviet Union is dismantled and the armed struggle groups in this country are at a level of unprecedented weakness, thus they need to use prisoners as enemies.

As you can imagine the campaign of yellow journalism, sensationalism, morbidity, blood, tears and fears, all of it well ...

Control Units and Democratic Repression in Chile

In December of 1992 the Chilean government began building an "anti terrorist" prison which is part of that country's new policy in the so called "struggle against violent extremism." This new prison will have a capacity to hold more than one hundred of the so called "dangerous prisoners," who will be isolated in individual cells in which a policy of total isolation and dispersion will be applied. They will only be allowed visits from their family members in rooms separated by glass and bars. The design and construction of this modern prison has required the help of experts from Europe, especially Spain.

According to the new laws, 137 prisoners will become the first tenants of this repressive marvel as they are considered to be terrorists because they participated in armed actions after March 1, 1990, date on which the current "democratic" government took office. In addition there are another 30 prisoners who are political prisoners who participated in armed actions during the dictatorship. The latter have not been given any type of amnesty and their prison situation is the same as that of the so called terrorist prisoners, a fact which has led them to begin a hunger strike ...


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